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Sword of Logres

None of the line items that are included in the following outline are meant to be links.
The outline itself represents the material that is to be covered in the upcoming book known by the above title (available after June 2029).

Foreword by Nicholas Anthony Tockert II

  1. Introduction to Excalibur, Sword of Logres
  2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name Excalibur, Multiple Excaliburs, and Other Swords and Weapons
    1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name Excalibur, Multiple Excaliburs, and Other Swords and Weapons
    2. Meaning and Origin of the Name Excalibur
    3. The Existence of Multiple Excaliburs
      1. Introduction to The Existence of Multiple Excaliburs
      2. Calabrops/Kalabrop(s)/Kalaurops/(club/septa)
      3. Caletbolocos/(sword of lightning)
      4. Caladcholg/Caladbolg/(hard belly)/(voracious)/Caledbolg/(In) Calad(-)bolg/(caladbuilc)
      5. Caladfwlch/Caledfwlch/Caledvw(l)ch/Caledwich/Caladvwlch/Calwdvwlch/Caladviolch/(hard notch)
      6. Caletuwlch/Kaletvwlch/Kaledvoulc’h/Kaledvoul’ch/(hard cleft)
      7. Calesvol/Calleva/Calleba/Cal(l)ib(o)urc/Caliban/C(h)alabrum/C(h)alabrun/Caleburn/Caliburn(i)(us)
      8. Calibo(u)r(n)(e)/Callibo(u)r(c)(h)/Estalibore/Escalibor(c)/Esicalibur/Es(e)calibur/Excalibor/Excalibar/Excalabur/Excalibur
    4. Other Swords and Weapons, Comparison with and in Addition to Excalibur
      1. Introduction to Other Swords and Weapons, Comparison with and in Addition to Excalibur
      2. Swords
        1. Great Glaive of the Mighty Enchanter
          1. Uther Pendragon
          2. Arthur
        2. Sword in the Stone
          1. (Uther Pendragon)
          2. Merlin
          3. Arthur
        3. Sword of Attila/Mars/(the War God)
        4. Clarent/(my clean darling)/(crown of all swords)/(a bright sword shining like silver)
          1. (Merlin)
          2. Arthur
          3. Mordred
        5. Mirandoise/Marandois(e)/Marmiadoise/Marmy(a)do(y)se/Marundois
          1. (Vulcan)
          2. Hercules
          3. ...
          4. Adrastus
          5. Tydeus
          6. Eteocles
          7. Polynices
          8. ...
          9. King Rience/Rions/Ryons/Retho
          10. Arthur
        6. Brownsteel
        7. Chastiefol
        8. Gala(n)tine/Galantyne/Galuth
          1. (The Lady of the Lake)
          2. Gawain
        9. Seure/Sequence/Seca(n)ce
        10. Aro(u)ndight/Arondite/Alondite
          1. La(u)ncelot
          2. G(u)y/Gui of/a/de Warwi(c)k/Warewic
          3. Sir Bevis/Beve(r)(s)/Beufves/Bevusar/Boeve/Bown/Bibuis/Beuvijn of/de/o/von Hampto(u)n/Hanton(n)e/Haumtone/Hamtwn/Hamtuir/Austoen
        11. Gastiga-Folli/Chiarenza/Altachiara/(Haut(e) Claire)/Hauteclere/Halteclere/Haut(e)claire/(very bright)
          1. Lancelot
          2. Guy of Warwick
          3. (Closamont)
          4. Ulivieri/Oliver
        12. Tanlladwyr
        13. Coreiseuse
        14. Kurt/Curtana/(short)/Curtayne/Cortaine/Cortana/(Colbrand’s Brand)
          1. Sword of Mercy
          2. Tristan
          3. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
          4. (Ogier the Dane)/(Olgerus, dux Daniae)/(Olger, War-Leader of the Danes)
          5. Miles, the second son of Sir Bevis
        15. Almace/Almice/Almacia
          1. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
          2. Turpin
        16. Durandal/Durendal/Dur(l)indana/Dyrumdali/(enduring/inflexible)
          1. Hector of Troy
          2. Helmont
          3. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
          4. (Malagigi/Maugris)
          5. Roland/Orlando
        17. (Sword of/with the Strange Sheath/Hangings)/Gioisa
          1. King David of Israel
          2. King Solomon
          3. (Perceval)
          4. Galahad
          5. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
        18. Sword with the Red Hilt
          1. Balin
          2. (Merlin)
          3. Galahad
          4. Perceval
        19. Broken Sword
          1. Saracen seneschal Elyezer
          2. Bors
        20. Dyrnwyn, Gleddyf Rhydderch Hael
          1. White-Hilt
          2. Sword of Rhydderch the Generous
        21. Orna, Sword of Tethra
          1. (Ogma)
          2. Tethra
          3. Manannan
        22. Claideb/Claíomh Solais
          1. Sword of Light
          2. Shining Sword
          3. King Núad(h)a
        23. Claideb/Claíomh Lúg(h) (Lámfada)
          1. Sword of Lúgh (of the Long Arm(s)/(Long Hands)/(Artful Hands))
          2. Sword of (the nimble) Lúg
        24. Cruaidín Catutchenn
          1. Hard-headed Steeling
          2. Shone at night like a candle
          3. Cúchulainn
          4. Socht
          5. Duibhdhriu
        25. Gram(r)/Balmung/Nothung
          1. Odin
          2. Sigmund
        26. Joyeaux/Joyeuse/Joiuse/(Joyous Gard?)
          1. Lancelot
          2. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
        27. Nag(e)lring/Naegling/Hrunting
          1. The sword of Dietrich von Bern
            • Given to Dietrich by Elbegast
            • Elbegast had stolen it from Grim the giant
          2. In Thidrekssaga
            • Taken from Alfrik the dwarf
            • By Thidrek
          3. Given to Beowulf
            • By his uncle Hygelac
            • Used to kill Grendell
        28. Ros(s)e(n)
          1. Alberich
          2. Ortnit
        29. Floberge/Flamberge
        30. Margleis
        31. Preciuse
        32. Egeking
        33. Kusanagi 早薙 (“Brass Mower”)/Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi 草薙の剣 (“Grass-Cutting Sword”)
          1. Originally called Mura-kumo 那雲 (“Assembled Clouds”)/Ame-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi 天叢雲剣 (“Heavenly Sword of Gathering Clouds”)
          2. (Yamata no Orocni/Orochi)
          3. Susano(-)o 須佐之男
          4. Amaterasu
          5. Nimgi 邇邇芸
          6. Yamato-hime/Yamatohime-no-mikoto
          7. Yamato-takeru
        34. Thuân Thiên
        35. Tizón/Tizona and Colada
        36. Zulfiqar
        37. Sword of Laban
        38. Misteltein(n)/Mistilteinn/Mystletainn
        39. Tyrfing/Tirfing/Tyrving
        40. S(h)ar-Gaz — a double-edged scimitar of Nin-Ur-Ta
      3. Other Weapons and Arms/Armour
        1. Knife/Dagger — Karnwennan/Carnwennan/Carnwenhau
        2. Spears/Lances
          1. Rhongomyniad/Rhon(o)gomyant/Rhongowennan/Ron
            • (Griffin)
            • Uther Pendragon
            • King Arthur
          2. Maltet
          3. Sleg/Sleá Lúgh, Sleá Bua
            • Spear of Lúgh
            • (Invincible) Spear of Victory (for the death of great champions)
          4. Sleg/Sleá Núada — (Deadly) Spear of (King) Núada
          5. Luin — Spear of Celtchair
          6. Cletine/Duaibhseach — Spear of Cuchulainn
        3. Ship/Shield — Prydwen/Pridwen/Pridwenn/Prytwenn
        4. Shields
          1. Wynebgwrthucher/(face of evening)
            • In Culhwch ac Olwen (Culhwch/Kilhwch and Olwen/Olwyn),
            • Arthur’s Shield
          2. Shield of Sir Gawain and its Red (gules) background on which is placed a Gold (or) Single-Headed Eagle
            • In Perlesvaus,
            • Gawain won the shield that was once carried by the Jewish hero of the 2nd century BC, named Judas Maccabee/Machabee
            • Gawain gained the shield when he defeated an unnamed knight
          3. Shield (Joseph of Arimathea, Maiden of the Cart, then Perlesvaus/Perceval)
          4. Shield (Evalach/Mordrain, Shield’s Guardian, then Galahad)
        5. Byrnie/(long sleeveless tunic of chain mail) — Wigar
        6. Helmet — Goswhit/(goose white)
          1. Uther Pendragon
          2. King Arthur
        7. Bow — Fail-not/Unfailing Bow
        8. Maces
          1. Of Nin-Ur-Ta (literally Lady Mighty Character)
            • S(h)ar-Ur
            • [S(h)ar-Gaz — a double-edged scimitar]
          2. Of Baal — made by Kothar
            • Ayamur
            • Yagrush
        9. Hammer — Mjölnir
          1. Odin
          2. Thor
  3. Beginnings
    1. “Excalibur” was forged
      1. Isle of Avalon
      2. Otherworld
      3. (Mt Ætna/Etna)/(Gibel Uttamat)/Mon(t)gibel(lo)/Monte(-)gibel
      4. Anatolia
        1. The Chalybes
        2. chalybs (steel or iron)
    2. “Khopesh/Khepesh Style Sword”
      1. Sumerian
      2. Legendary Egyptian Sword that Glowed Blue when wielded
    3. “Sword of Priam”
    4. “Sword of Aeneas”
    5. Sword(s) of Gaius Iulius Caesar
      1. Crocea Mors — Yellow Death
      2. Angau Coch — Red Death
      3. Angau Glas — Grey Death
    6. Sword of Tiberius Claudius Nero (as a Gladius)
    7. Sword of Prince Nennius of Briton
      1. Possibly Gaius Iulius Caesar’s Crocea Mors — Yellow Death
      2. Which was buried with Nennius
    8. Sword of Fergus mac Roich
    9. Sword of Cú Chulainn
    10. “Sword of Rex Nemorensis”
    11. Sword of Conchobar mac Nessa
    12. Sword of Magnus Maximus/Maxen Wledig (as an Early Byzantine blade)
    13. Passed to the Lady of the Lake
    14. “Sword in the Stone” (Sword of Mars)/(Sword of the War God)/(Sword of Attila) is broken in battle
    15. Excalibur is bestowed upon Arthur
      1. By a “sorcerous damosel”
      2. By the Lady of the Lake (who also bestows Excalibur’s valueable scabbard)
        1. Sometime after Arthur began his reign
        2. Scabbard protects wounded possessor of it from dying (due to blood loss)
        3. The Lady of the Lake may have had Saxon connections of some kind
          1. Politically
          2. Genealogically
          3. Both
    16. Description and Attributes of Excalibur
      1. The descriptions of Excalibur fit variations of the Spatha, a sword used by the Romans
        1. The blade was most likely a type of “wootz” (crucible steel)
          1. Could have its origins (as a “class” or “type” of sword) in what is now (Southeastern India)/(Northwestern Sri Lanka)
          2. Dating back to c 3000 BC
        2. Exhibited a herringbone or curved pattern on each side of the blade
        3. Longer than a traditional Spatha to allow for fighting from horseback
        4. Double edged, resembling a longsword
        5. With a fuller (groove) running most of the length
        6. Probably inscribed by the swordsmith (an “elfan/elven” or “faerie/fairy” smith)
          1. Merlin
          2. Wayland/Weland
          3. Goibniu/Gofannon
          4. Ogma
          5. Hephaestos/Vulcan(us)
        7. With a design of two chimeras (or serpents/snakes) on the golden hilt
          1. Chimera — a fire-breathing female monster with a lion’s head, goat’s body, and serpent’s tail
          2. Serpent/Snake is the same design as that of an auxilium unit of the Roman army that was based at Segontium/(Caer Seint)/Caernarvon
      2. When the sword was unsheathed (drawn), its blade glowed white-blue (as ice that was hot)
        1. From the mouths of the two chimeras (or serpents/snakes) were like two flames of fire
        2. Was so bright in Arthur’s enemies’ eyes
        3. It gave a light like thirty torches
        4. So dreadful that it was not easy for anyone to look
      3. No armor could withstand it (monatomic or monomolecular blade edge)
      4. Excalibur instantly kills anyone it touches
      5. Possesses a kind of oracular magic — Gazing into the sword enabled Arthur to give every questioner an answer
  4. In Arthur’s care
    1. He draws against the Wild Beasts of the Forest
    2. With this weapon, Arthur vanquished many foes
    3. Against the Saxons, the sword Caliburnus (Excalibur) is used in the Battle of Badon
    4. He occasionally entrusted “Excalibur” to Others
      1. Llenlleawg Wyddel
      2. Gawain
      3. Lancelot
      4. Meliadus
      5. Morgan le Fay
        1. She made a counterfeit sword
        2. Gave the real one to her lover, Accalon
        3. Returned the copy to Arthur
        4. She keeps the scabbard
  5. Endings
    1. After the final battle with Mordred
      1. Arthur commands one of his knights to throw “Excalibur” into a nearby lake
        1. Girflet/Griflet/Gifflet in the Vulgate and Post-Vulgate
        2. Bedwyr/Bedivere in the Stanzaic Morte Arthur and Malory
        3. Gawain(e) in the Middle English Parlement of the Thre Ages
        4. Lucan in the English ballad King Arthurs Death
        5. A nameless squire in La Tavola Ritonda
      2. A mysterious hand rises from the water and seizes the sword, drawing it under
      3. Excalibur is probably retrieved by a water fairy (perhaps the Lady of the Lake herself)
    2. Cadwr (Cador(ius)), Earl of Cornwall, rose with Arthur’s (his half-brother’s) sword
    3. Constantine III (Custennin, son of Cadwr), who was the nephew of Arthur, had the sword Caliburc (Excalibur)
    4. Sometime between AD 1170 and AD 1180
      1. Galgano Guidotti
      2. In what is now called Rotonda di Montesiepi
      3. He planted his sword in the ground
      4. The sword is said to have immediately become one piece with the ground so that nobody could remove it
      5. A story says that in a vision, he was told to renounce material things
      6. He, stating that it would be as easy as splitting a rock, decided to make his point by plunging his sword into one
      7. As the legend has it, the sword went through the stone like a knife through butter
      8. Was this sword one of the “Excaliburs”?
      9. Sometime afterward, did someone “worthy” remove it?
    5. In AD 1191, King Richard the Lionheart
      1. Presented “Caliburn(us)” to his ally, Tancred of Lecce (King of Sicily)
      2. Sword was ‘discovered’ during the exhumation of Arthur’s body at Glastonbury in AD 1190
    6. Supposedly in AD 1215, “Excalibur” was in the Royal Regalia lost by King John
      1. When his treasure wagon overturned at The Wash
      2. Whilst he was attempting to avoid the barons
    7. During the early Thirteenth Century AD,
      1. (Ex)calibur(n) had been passed down to one of Tancred’s successors
      2. Through William III of Sicily
      3. To Constance, Queen of Sicily and Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
      4. Until it reached Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
    8. In AD 1229,
      1. Frederick II presented (Ex)calibur(n)
      2. To Πέτρος Κορώνηωυ (Pétros Korónioy: Peter of Corone)
    9. By AD 1260 (most likely between AD 1248 and AD 1254),
      1. “Peter” had broken the sword (into at least two, if not three, pieces)
      2. In battle with “Muhammad Yawar”
      3. He had killed “Peter” at the very same time (with a piece of the sword’s broken blade)
      4. Near what is now the Jordanian-Syrian border (on the Syrian side)
    10. Possibly between AD 1254 and AD 1260
      1. Presumedly, the body of “Peter” was taken to the Venetian castle that sits on a hill above the town of Corone (Koroni: Κορώνη) to be interred, along with a piece of (Ex)calibur(n)
      2. Supposedly, the remaining piece of (Ex)calibur(n) was taken to the Roman Catholic church of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Greater) on Largo Santa Maria Maggiore in the town of Nicosia, in Enna province, Sicily
    11. Afterward (between AD 1260 and AD 1277),
      1. “Yawar” kept the piece of the sword’s blade (that he used to kill “Peter”) as a trophy
      2. He returned home to “Kafashta” (possibly Nawa), Syria
      3. “Muhammad Yawar” then gave the partial blade to the imam of the town (possibly Imam Nawawi)
      4. It is assumed that the imam placed the piece of that sword within the town’s mosque
  6. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of Excalibur
    1. Geography of Excalibur
    2. Genealogy of Excalibur
    3. Timeline of Excalibur
Afterword by Thomas Branchetti

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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