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Excalibur,
Sword of Logres

None of the line items that are included in the following outline are meant to be links.
The outline itself represents the material that is to be covered in the upcoming book known by the above title (available after June 2030).

Foreword by Nicholas Anthony Tockert II

  1. Introduction to Excalibur, Sword of Logres
  2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name Excalibur, Multiple Excaliburs, and Other Swords and Weapons
    1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name Excalibur, Multiple Excaliburs, and Other Swords and Weapons
    2. Meaning and Origin of the Name Excalibur
    3. The Existence of Multiple Excaliburs
      1. Introduction to The Existence of Multiple Excaliburs
      2. (वज्र Vajrā: Vajra)/(“thunderbolt” of Indra)
      3. (κεραυνός, Kerav̱nós: Keraunos)/(thunderbolt of Zeus)
      4. Calabrops/Kalabrop(s)/Kalaurops/(club/septa)
      5. Caletbolocos/(sword of lightning)
      6. Caladcholg/Caladbolg/(hard belly)/(hard lightning)/(voracious)/Caledbolg/(In) Calad(-)bolg/(caladbuilc)/(sword of Fergus mac Roich/Roy/Róig/Rossa)
      7. Caladfwlch/Caledfwlch/Caledvw(l)ch/Caledwich/Caladvw(l)ch/Calwdvwlch/Caladviolch/(hard notch)/(cledyf lluch (lleawc))/(sword flashing/bright (of Lleawc(h)))
      8. Caletuwlch/Kaletvwlch/Kaledvoulc’h/Kaledvoul’ch/(hard cleft)
      9. Calesvol/Calleva/Calleba/Cal(l)ib(o)urc/Caliban/C(h)alabrum/C(h)alabrun/Caleburn/Caliburn(i)(us)
      10. Calibo(u)r(n)(e)/Callibo(u)r(c)(h)/Estalibore/Escalibor(c)/Esicalibur/Es(e)calibur/Excalibor/Excalibar/Excalabur/Excalibur
    4. Other Swords and Weapons, Comparison with and in Addition to Excalibur
      1. Introduction to Other Swords and Weapons, Comparison with and in Addition to Excalibur
      2. Swords
        1. Great Glaive of the Mighty Enchanter
          1. Uther Pendragon
          2. Arthur
        2. Sword in the Stone
          1. (Uther Pendragon)
          2. Merlin
          3. Arthur
        3. Sword of Attila/Mars/(the War God)/(the Gods)
          1. Legendary weapon carried by Attila the Hun
          2. Was possibly broken in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains (Battle of Châlons) on 20 June AD 451
          3. May have been related to the sword Joyeaux/Joyeuse/Joiuse once supposedly belonging to Lancelot, then to Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
        4. Clarent/(my clean darling)/(crown of all swords)/(a bright sword shining like silver)
          1. (Merlin)
          2. Arthur
          3. Mordred
        5. Mirandoise/Marandois(e)/Marmiadoise/Marmy(a)do(y)se/Marundois
          1. (Vulcan)
          2. Hercules
          3. ...
          4. Adrastus
          5. Tydeus
          6. Eteocles
          7. Polynices
          8. ...
          9. King Rience/Rions/Ryons/Retho
          10. Arthur
        6. Brownsteel
        7. Chastiefol
        8. Gala(n)tine/Galantyne/Galuth
          1. (The Lady of the Lake)
          2. Gawain
        9. Seure/Sequence/Seca(n)ce
        10. Aro(u)ndight/Arondite/Alondite
          1. La(u)ncelot
          2. G(u)y/Gui of/a/de Warwi(c)k/Warewic
          3. Sir Bevis/Beve(r)(s)/Beufves/Bevusar/Boeve/Bown/Bibuis/Beuvijn of/de/o/von Hampto(u)n/Hanton(n)e/Haumtone/Hamtwn/Hamtuir/Austoen
        11. Gastiga-Folli/Chiarenza/Altachiara/(Haut(e) Claire)/Hauteclere/Halteclere/Haut(e)claire/(very bright)
          1. Lancelot
          2. Guy of Warwick
          3. (Closamont)
          4. Ulivieri/Oliver
        12. Tanlladwyr
        13. Coreiseuse
        14. Kurt/Curtana/(short)/Curtayne/Cortaine/Cortana/(Colbrand’s Brand)
          1. Sword of Mercy
          2. Tristan
          3. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
          4. (Ogier the Dane)/(Olgerus, dux Daniae)/(Olger, War-Leader of the Danes)
          5. Miles, the second son of Sir Bevis
        15. Almace/Almice/Almacia
          1. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
          2. Turpin
        16. Durandal/Durendal/Dur(l)indana/Dyrumdali/(enduring/inflexible)
          1. Hector of Troy
          2. Helmont
          3. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
          4. (Malagigi/Maugris)
          5. Roland/Orlando
        17. (Sword of/with the Strange Sheath/Hangings)/Gioisa
          1. King David of Israel
          2. King Solomon
          3. (Perceval)
          4. Galahad
          5. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
        18. Sword with the Red Hilt
          1. Balin
          2. (Merlin)
          3. Galahad
          4. Perceval
        19. Broken Sword
          1. Saracen seneschal Elyezer
          2. Bors
        20. Dyrnwyn, Gleddyf Rhydderch Hael
          1. White-Hilt
          2. Sword of Rhydderch the Generous
        21. Orna, Sword of Tethra
          1. (Ogma)
          2. Tethra
          3. Manannan
        22. Claideb/Claíomh Solais
          1. Sword of Light
          2. Shining Sword
          3. King Núad(h)a
        23. Fragarach
          1. Answerer
          2. Belonging to Manannan
        24. Claideb/Claíomh Lúg(h) (Lámf(h)ada)
          1. Sword of Lúgh (of the Long Arm(s)/(Long Hands)/(Artful Hands))
          2. Sword of (the nimble) Lúg
        25. Cruaidín Catutchenn
          1. Hard-headed Steeling
          2. Shone at night like a candle
          3. Cúchulainn
          4. Socht
          5. Duibhdhriu
        26. Gram(r)/Balmung/Nothung
          1. Odin
          2. Sigmund
          3. Sigurd
        27. Joyeaux/Joyeuse/Joiuse/(Joyous Gard?)
          1. Lancelot
          2. Charlemagne/Karlamagnus
        28. Nag(e)lring/Naegling/Hrunting
          1. The sword of Dietrich von Bern
            • Given to Dietrich by Elbegast
            • Elbegast had stolen it from Grim the giant
          2. In Thidrekssaga
            • Taken from Alfrik the dwarf
            • By Thidrek
          3. Given to Beowulf
            • By his uncle Hygelac
            • Used to kill Grendell
        29. Ros(s)e(n)
          1. Alberich
          2. Ortnit
        30. Dzus-Quara, sword of Batraz/Pataraz
        31. Floberge/Flamberge
        32. Margleis
        33. Preciuse
        34. Egeking
        35. Kusanagi 早薙 (“Brass Mower”)/Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi 草薙の剣 (“Grass-Cutting Sword”)
          1. Originally called Mura-kumo 那雲 (“Assembled Clouds”)/Ame-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi 天叢雲剣 (“Heavenly Sword of Gathering Clouds”)
          2. (Yamata no Orocni/Orochi)
          3. Susano(-)o 須佐之男
          4. Amaterasu
          5. Nimgi 邇邇芸
          6. Yamato-hime/Yamatohime-no-mikoto
          7. Yamato-takeru
        36. Thuân Thiên
        37. Tizón/Tizona and Colada
        38. Zulfiqar
        39. Sword of Laban
        40. Misteltein(n)/Mistilteinn/Mystletainn
        41. Tyrfing/Tirfing/Tyrving
        42. S(h)ar-Gaz — a double-edged scimitar of Nin-Ur-Ta
      3. Other Weapons and Arms/Armour
        1. Knife/Dagger — Karnwennan/Carnwennan/Carnwenhau
          1. In Trioedd Ynys Prydein/Prydain (Triads of British Isle, or Welsh Triads)
          2. King Arthur’s Knife/Dagger
          3. (Little White Hilt)
        2. Spears/Lances
          1. Rhongomyniad/Rhon(o)gomyant/Rhongomiant/Rhongowennan/Ron/(slayer/slaying spear)/(“hard, broad, and thirsty for slaughter”)
            • (Griffin)
            • Uther Pendragon
            • King Arthur
          2. Maltet
          3. Sleg/Sleá Lúgh, Sleá Bua
            • Spear of Lúgh
            • (Invincible) Spear of Victory (for the death of great champions)
          4. Gáe Assail
            • Lightning Spear
            • Belonging to Lugh
          5. Sleg/Sleá Núada — (Deadly) Spear of (King) Núada
          6. Lúin/Luin — Spear of Celtchair/Celtcharin
          7. Spears of Cúchulainn/Cuchulainn
            • Cletine/Duaibhseach
            • Gáe Bulg/Bolg/(bolg - swelling with anger, to be angry, bag of leather, belly/stomach)
        3. Ship/Shield — Prytwenn/Prydwen/Pridewyn/Pridwen(n)/Priven
          1. King Arthur’s Ship in Preiddeu Annw(fy)n (Spoils of Annwn), and Culhwch ac Olwen (Culhwch/Kilhwch and Olwen/Olwyn)
          2. King Arthur’s Shield in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniæ (History of Kings of Britain), or De Gestis Britonum (Of Deeds of Britons)
          3. (Fair/White/Blessed Face/Form)
        4. Shields
          1. Wynebgwrthucher/(face of evening)
            • In Culhwch ac Olwen (Culhwch/Kilhwch and Olwen/Olwyn),
            • Arthur’s Shield
          2. Shield of Sir Gawain and its Red (gules) background on which is placed a Gold (or) Single-Headed Eagle
            • In Perlesvaus,
            • Gawain won the shield that was once carried by the Jewish hero of the 2nd century BC, named Judas Maccabee/Machabee
            • Gawain gained the shield when he defeated an unnamed knight
          3. Shield (Joseph of Arimathea, Maiden of the Cart, then Perlesvaus/Perceval)
          4. Shield (Evalach/Mordrain, Shield’s Guardian, then Galahad)
        5. Byrnie/(long sleeveless tunic of chain mail)/(hauberk)
          1. (Wigar/Wygar/(wigheard/battle-hard)/(Witeʒe/Wudia, son of Wayland))
          2. Arthur
        6. Helmet — Goswhit/Goswiht/(goose white)
          1. Uther Pendragon
          2. King Arthur
        7. Bow — Fail-not/Unfailing Bow
        8. Maces
          1. Of Nin-Ur-Ta (literally Lady Mighty Character)
            • S(h)ar-Ur
            • [S(h)ar-Gaz — a double-edged scimitar]
          2. Of Baal — made by Kothar
            • Ayamur
            • Yagrush
        9. Hammer — Mjölnir
          1. Odin
          2. Thor
  3. Beginnings
    1. “Excalibur” was forged
      1. Isle of Avalon
      2. Otherworld
      3. La Fontaine de Barenton (The Fountain of Barenton) in Forêt de Brocéliande (Forest of Brocéliande)
        1. Referenced in the Post Vulgate’s Estoire de Merlin (History of Merlin)
        2. Here the Lady of the Lake makes Excalibur for Merlin
        3. So that he will be invulnerable
        4. Later Merlin decides that Arthur should have Excalibur
      4. (Mt Ætna/Etna)/(Gibel Uttamat)/Mon(t)gibel(lo)/Monte(-)gibel
      5. Anatolia
        1. The Chalybes/Kalybes
        2. (ex (out of) +) chalyb(u)s (steel or iron) + ebur(n)(us) (white/(decorated with/made partially out of ivory))
    2. Sword with a “Wootz” blade, made in the Indus Valley (Southeastern India, Northwestern Sri Lanka)
    3. “Khopesh/Khepesh Style Sword”
      1. Sumerian
      2. Legendary Egyptian Sword that Glowed Blue when wielded
    4. “Sword of Archangel Michael/میکائیل/مایکل/(mikâ'il)/(mâykel)/(who is like strength/power)”
      1. Flaming Sword
      2. Of Cobalt Blue
      3. ?Flame of Death?
    5. “Sword of Priam”
    6. “Sword of Aeneas”
    7. Sword(s) of Gaius Iulius Caesar
      1. Crocea Mors — Yellow Death
      2. Angau Coch — Red Death
      3. Angau Glas — Grey Death
    8. Sword of Tiberius Claudius Nero (as a Gladius)
    9. Sword of Prince Nennius of Briton
      1. Possibly Gaius Iulius Caesar’s Crocea Mors — Yellow Death
      2. Which was buried with Nennius
    10. Sword of Fergus mac Roich
    11. Sword of Cú Chulainn
    12. “Sword of Rex Nemorensis”
    13. Sword of Conchobar mac Nessa
    14. Sword of Magnus Maximus/Maxen Wledig (as an Early Byzantine blade)
    15. Passed to the Lady of the Lake
    16. “Sword in the Stone” (Sword of Mars)/(Sword of the War God)/(Sword of the Gods)/(Sword of Attila) is broken in battle
    17. Excalibur is bestowed upon Arthur
      1. By a “sorcerous damosel”
      2. By the Lady of the Lake (who also bestows Excalibur’s valueable scabbard)
        1. Sometime after Arthur began his reign
        2. Scabbard protects wounded possessor of it from dying (due to blood loss)
        3. The Lady of the Lake may have had Saxon connections of some kind
          1. Politically
          2. Genealogically
          3. Both
    18. Description and Attributes of Excalibur
      1. The descriptions of Excalibur fit variations of the Spatha, a sword used by the Romans
        1. The blade was most likely a type of “wootz” (crucible steel)
          1. Could have its origins (as a “class” or “type” of sword) in what is now (Southeastern India)/(Northwestern Sri Lanka)
          2. Dating back to c 3000 BC
        2. Exhibited a herringbone or curved pattern on each side of the blade
        3. Longer than a traditional Spatha to allow for fighting from horseback
        4. Double edged, resembling a longsword
        5. With a fuller (groove) running most of the length
        6. Probably inscribed by the swordsmith (an “elfan/elven” or “faerie/fairy” smith)
          1. Merlin
          2. Wayland/Weland
          3. Goibniu/Gofannon
          4. Ogma
          5. Hephaestos/Vulcan(us)
        7. With a design of two chimeras (or serpents/snakes) on the golden hilt
          1. Chimera — a fire-breathing female monster with a lion’s head, goat’s body, and serpent’s tail
          2. Serpent/Snake
            • Similar design as that of a Roman army auxilium unit that was based at Segontium/(Caer Seint)/Caernarvon
            • Echoing the Caduceus of Hermes/Mercurius as a staff entwined by two serpents
      2. When the sword was unsheathed (drawn), its blade glowed white-blue (as ice that was hot)
        1. From the mouths of the two chimeras (or serpents/snakes) were like two flames of fire
        2. Was so bright in Arthur’s enemies’ eyes
        3. It gave a light like thirty torches
        4. So dreadful that it was not easy for anyone to look
      3. No armor could withstand it (monatomic or monomolecular blade edge)
      4. Excalibur instantly kills anyone it touches
      5. Possesses a kind of oracular magic — Gazing into the sword enabled Arthur to give every questioner an answer
  4. In Arthur’s care
    1. He draws against the Wild Beasts of the Forest
    2. With this weapon, Arthur vanquished many foes
    3. Against the Saxons, the sword Caliburnus is used in the Battle of Badon
    4. He occasionally entrusted “Excalibur” to Others
      1. ((Llaw/Llwch) L(l)eminawc)/(Lloch (Llawwynnyawc/Llawwynnyawg))(/Sir Lucan(e)/Lucus)
        1. Seizes Caladvwch/Caledvwlch
        2. Swings it around
        3. Killing the entire retinue of Dyrnwch/Drynog the Giant
          1. Also referred to as Diwrnach Wyddel the Irishman
          2. Possibly identical to The Irish Dagda/(good god)
      2. Llenlleawc/Llenlleawg Wyddel (the Irishman)
        1. Related to Garselit Wyddel the Irishman
        2. Possibly related to Diwrnach Wyddel the Irishman as well
      3. Gawain
      4. Lancelot
      5. Meliadus
      6. Morgan le Fay
        1. She made a counterfeit sword
        2. Gave the real one to her lover, Accalon
        3. Returned the copy to Arthur
        4. She keeps the scabbard
  5. Endings
    1. After the final battle with Mordred
      1. Arthur commands one of his knights to throw “Excalibur” into a nearby lake
        1. Girflet/Griflet/Gifflet in the Vulgate and Post-Vulgate
        2. Bedwyr/Bedivere in the Stanzaic Morte Arthur and Malory
        3. Gawain(e) in the Middle English Parlement of the Thre Ages
        4. Lucan in the English ballad King Arthurs Death
        5. A nameless squire in La Tavola Ritonda
      2. A mysterious hand rises from the water and seizes the sword, drawing it under
      3. Excalibur is probably retrieved by a water fairy (perhaps the Lady of the Lake herself)
    2. Cadwr (Cador(ius)), Earl of Cornwall, rose with Arthur’s (his half-brother’s) sword
    3. Constantine III (Custennin, son of Cadwr), who was the nephew of Arthur, had the sword Caliburc
    4. Sometime between AD 1170 and AD 1180
      1. Galgano Guidotti
      2. In what is now called Rotonda di Montesiepi
      3. He planted his sword in the ground
      4. The sword is said to have immediately become one piece with the ground so that nobody could remove it
      5. A story says that in a vision, he was told to renounce material things
      6. He, stating that it would be as easy as splitting a rock, decided to make his point by plunging his sword into one
      7. As the legend has it, the sword went through the stone like a knife through butter
      8. Was this sword one of the “Excaliburs”?
      9. Sometime afterward, did someone “worthy” remove it?
    5. In AD 1191, King Richard the Lionheart
      1. Presented “Caliburn(us)” to his ally, Tancred of Lecce (King of Sicily)
      2. Sword was ‘discovered’ during the exhumation of Arthur’s body at Glastonbury in AD 1190
    6. Supposedly in AD 1215, “Excalibur” was in the Royal Regalia lost by King John
      1. When his treasure wagon overturned at The Wash
      2. Whilst he was attempting to avoid the barons
    7. During the early Thirteenth Century AD,
      1. (Ex)calibur(n) had been passed down to one of Tancred’s successors
      2. Through William III of Sicily
      3. To Constance, Queen of Sicily and Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
      4. Until it reached Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
    8. In AD 1229,
      1. Frederick II presented (Ex)calibur(n)
      2. To Πέτρος Κορώνηωυ (Pétros Korónioy: Peter of Corone)
    9. By AD 1260 (most likely between AD 1248 and AD 1254),
      1. “Peter” had broken the sword (into at least two, if not three, pieces)
      2. In battle with “Muhammad Yawar”
      3. He had killed “Peter” at the very same time (with a piece of the sword’s broken blade)
      4. Near what is now the Jordanian-Syrian border (on the Syrian side)
    10. Possibly between AD 1254 and AD 1260
      1. Presumedly, the body of “Peter” was taken
        1. To the Venetian castle that sits on a hill above the town of Corone (Koroni: Κορώνη)
        2. To be interred, along with a piece of (Ex)calibur(n)
      2. Supposedly, the remaining piece of (Ex)calibur(n) was taken
        1. To the Roman Catholic church of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Greater)
        2. On Largo Santa Maria Maggiore in the town of Nicosia, in Enna province, Sicily
    11. Afterward (between AD 1260 and AD 1277),
      1. “Yawar” kept the piece of the sword’s blade (that he used to kill “Peter”) as a trophy
      2. He returned home to “Kafashta” (possibly Nawa), Syria
      3. “Muhammad Yawar” then gave the partial blade to the imam of the town (possibly Imam Nawawi)
      4. It is assumed that the imam placed the piece of that sword within the town’s mosque
  6. Astrological Signs Associated with Excalibur
    1. Ophiuchus — Sun, Moon, Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn — Fire, Water, Earth, Air
    2. Sagittarius — Jupiter+ — Fire
  7. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of Excalibur
    1. Geography of Excalibur
    2. Genealogy of Excalibur
    3. Timeline of Excalibur
Afterword by Thomas Branchetti

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
 
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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