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The History:
Cornwall, Wales, and France
(Saxons, Romans, Picts, Scots, and The Irish)

None of the line items that are included in the following outline are meant to be links.
The outline itself represents the material that is to be covered in the upcoming book known by the above title (available after December 2027).

Foreword by Jason Hamilton

  1. Introduction to The History: Cornwall, Wales, and France (Saxons, Romans, Picts, Scots, and The Irish)
  2. Chronologies, Timelines, Calendars, and Timekeeping
  3. Grand Chronology [*speculative]
    1. Introduction to Grand Chronology
    2. Earliest “date” on the “Proto-Hindu” (*Bharatan/Ariánic/“Vedic”(/Manasarovar/mind-lake) Ancient Indus Valley) calendar
      1. c 155,519,999,998,000‬ BC ≈ 155,520,000,000,000 BC ≈ 156 Trillion BC
      2. Normalised to c 11,963,076,922,923 BC ≈ 11,963,000,000,000 BC ≈ 12 Trillion BC
    3. Earliest “date” on the “Proto-Slavic” (Proto-Orianian/Borusian/Skolotian/Cimmerian) calendar
      1. c 1,499,998,000‬ BC ≈ 1,500,000,000 BC = 1.5 Billion BC
      2. Normalised to c 115,384,462 BC ≈ 115,000,000 BC = 115 Million BC
    4. *Earliest emergence “date” for “Aratta” (Cucuteni/Tryphillia)
      1. c 1,021,800 BC ≈ 1,022,000 BC = 1.022 Million BC
      2. Normalised to c 26,200 BC
    5. Earliest “date” on the “Sumerian” calendar
      1. <337,718 BC> ≈ 338,000 BC (beginning of “Atlantis”)
        1. WB-444 (Sumerian vertically inscribed prism): 340,685 BC
        2. WB-62 (Sumerian clay tablet): 490,685 BC
        3. Berossus (Babylonian): 466,685 BC
        4. Stephen Herbert Langdon (quoting an 8th Century AD Chinese source): 432,000 BC
        5. Beginning of Homo naledi as a separate species: c 298,000 BC
        6. Beginning of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis as a separate sub-species: c 294,000 BC
        7. Beginning of Homo floresiensis as a separate species/sub-species: c 290,000 BC
        8. Beginning of Cro-Magnon (Early European Modern Humans) as a separate species: c 248,000 BC
        9. Beginning of Denisovans as a separate species/sub-species: c 244,000 BC
        10. End of an “Ice Age”: c 335,000 BC
        11. Present Author’s Calculation: 275,848 BC
      2. Normalised to <25,978 BC> ≈ 26,000 BC
      3. Corresponds to the beginning of the reign of Alulim (Al-lulim, Alorus) of Eridu (Babylon)
        1. Duration of <40,200 years>
          1. WB-444 (Sumerian vertically inscribed prism): 28,800 years
          2. WB-62 (Sumerian clay tablet): 67,200 years
          3. Berossus (Babylonian): 36,000 years
          4. Present Author’s Calculation: 28,800 years
        2. Normalised to <3,092 years>
    6. Date for the first of multiple floods (end of “Lemuria”, first cataclysm of “Atlantis”)
      1. <35,843 BC> ≈ 36,000 BC
        1. WB-444 (Sumerian vertically inscribed prism): 34,361 BC
        2. Nippur Tablet B (Sumerian) : 30,606 BC
        3. Berossus (Babylonian): 35,335 BC
        4. Turin Papyrus (Egyptian): 39,720 BC
        5. End of Satya/Krita Yuga (Hindu): 36,881 BC
        6. End of Lemurians: 36,735/36,881 BC
        7. End of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis as a separate sub-species: c 39,000 BC
        8. End of Homo floresiensis as a separate species/sub-species: c 38,000 BC
        9. End of Denisovans as a separate species/sub-species: c 37,000 BC
        10. End of a Virgo Epoch: 36,259 BC
        11. Present Author’s Calculation: 34,648 BC
      2. Normalised to <2,757 BC> ≈ 2,800 BC
      3. Compared with the “Biblical Flood” date as “calculated” to be c 2,349 BC
    7. Earliest “date” on the “Egyptian” calendar (end of “Hyperborea”)
      1. <30,921 BC> ≈ 31,000 BC
        1. Turin Papyrus (Egyptian): <82,557 BC>
        2. Manetho (Egyptian): 28,025 BC
        3. Beginning of “First Sun” (Aztec/Nahua): 21,142 BC
        4. End of Hyperboreans who moved from Lemuria to Hyperborea: 23,835/23,921 BC
        5. Beginning of Haplogroup X (mtDNA): c 28,000 BC
        6. End of a Gemini Epoch: 30,261 BC
        7. Beginning of Last “Ice Age”: c 27,000 BC
        8. Nippur Tablet B (Sumerian) : 20,727 BC
        9. Present Author’s Calculation: 23,739 BC
      2. Normalised to <10,686 BC> ≈ 11,000 BC
      3. Corresponds to the beginning of the reign of Ptah
        1. Duration of 9,000 years
        2. Normalised to 692 years
    8. Beginning of Younger Dryas (second cataclysm of “Atlantis”)
      1. <11,156 BC> ≈ 11,200 BC
        1. Berossus (Babylonian): 11,266 BC
        2. Manetho (Egyptian): 11,053 BC
        3. Beginning of Sothic Cycles Calendar (Egyptian): 11,542 BC
        4. Solar Eclipse: 29 August 11,542 BC
        5. Beginning of Lunar Calendar (Assyrian): 11,542 BC
        6. End of Atlanteans: 10,947/10,961 BC
        7. End of a Virgo Epoch: 10,471 BC
        8. Marco M Vigato’s Calculation: 10,983 BC
        9. Massive Cometary Strike: c 11,000 BC
        10. Beginning of “Third Sun” (Aztec/Nahua): 11,132 BC
        11. End of Last “Ice Age”: c 12,000 BC
        12. Planetary “Alignment”: 29 October 11,266 BC
        13. Present Author’s Calculation: 10,471 BC
      2. Normalised to <3,719 BC> ≈ 3,700 BC
    9. Date for Fall of First Dynasty of Kish (final cataclysm of “Atlantis”)
      1. <9,576 BC> ≈ 9,600 BC
        1. WB-444 (Sumerian vertically inscribed prism): 9,851 BC
        2. Nippur Tablet B (Sumerian) : 9,710 BC
        3. Manetho (Egyptian): 8,913 BC
        4. Papyrus of Abu Hormeis (Coptic): 9,220 BC
        5. Bundahishn (Persian/Zoroastrian): 9,600 BC
        6. Critias (Plato): 9,600 BC
        7. Present Author’s Calculation: 10,138 BC
      2. Normalised to <3,192 BC> ≈ 3,200 BC
  4. The Keltoí, Keltai(s), Celtae, Celtiberi(ans), Celtici, Celtus, and “Modern Celts”
    1. Introduction to The Keltoí, Keltai(s), Celtae, Celtiberi(ans), Celtici, Celtus, and “Modern Celts”
    2. Gauls
      1. Κελτοί/Keltoí/Γαλάται/Galatai/(Galatians)
      2. Κελταί/Κέλται/Keltai(s)/(Ferries)
      3. Celtae/Galli/(Galle)
    3. Celtiberi(ans)
      1. Lusones
      2. Titi
      3. Arevaci
      4. Pelendones
    4. Κελτικοί/Celtici
      1. South of modern-day Portugal, in the Alentejo region, between the Tagus and the Guadiana rivers
      2. Regions from Évora to Setúbal, being the coastal and southern areas occupied by the Turdetani
      3. Region of Baeturia (northwestern Andalusia)
      4. In the North, in Galicia, another group of Celtici dwelt the coastal areas; and comprised several populi, including the Celtici proper:
        1. The Praestamarci south of the Tambre river (Tamaris), the Supertamarci north of it, and the Neri by the Celtic promontory (Promunturium Celticum)
        2. Pomponius Mela affirmed that all the inhabitants of the coastal regions, from the bays of southern Galicia and till the Astures, were also Celtici:
          1. All (this coast) is inhabited by the Celtici, except from the Douro river to the bays, where the Grovi dwelt ()
          2. In the north coast first there are the Artabri, still of the Celtic people (Celticae gentis), and after them the Astures.
          3. He also mentioned the fabulous isles of tin, the Cassiterides, as situated among these Celtici
    5. Κελτός/Κέλτος/Keltos/Kǽltos/Celtus
      1. First-Century AD literary genealogy by Παρθένιος/Parthenios/Parthǽnios/Parthenius of Νίκαια/Níkaia/Nicaea
      2. Son of Ήρακλής/Herakles/Hercules/Iraklís and Κελτίνη/Keltine/Kæltíni
      3. Κελτίνη/Keltine/Kæltíni is the daughter of Βρεττανός/Brettanos/Brettanus/Vrættanós
    6. “Modern Celts”
      1. Introduction to “Modern Celts”
      2. Origin
        1. Romans used Celtae to refer to continental Gauls, but not in reference to the inhabitants of Ireland and Britain
        2. No record of the term “Celt” being used prior to the 17th century AD in connection with the inhabitants of Ireland and Britain during the Iron Age
        3. In AD 1707, the term “Celtic Languages” was coined by Edward Lhuyd
      3. Languages (in literary date order)
        1. Pictish — c AD 318 to c 11th Century AD
        2. Breton — c AD 431 to Present
        3. Irish — c AD 434 to Present
        4. Welsh — c AD 454 to Present
        5. Cornish — c AD 491 to AD 1800
        6. Scottish — c AD 512 to Present
        7. Manx — c AD 1600 to AD 1974
  5. The History of Cornwall, Wales, and France
    1. Introduction to The History of Cornwall, Wales, and France
    2. The History of Cornwall
      1. Introduction to The History of Cornwall
      2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
             The Name “Cornwall”, Five “Cornwalls”, and Additional Places Similar to Cornwall
        1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
               The Name “Cornwall”, Five “Cornwalls”, and Additional Places Similar to Cornwall
        2. Meaning and Origin of the Name “Cornwall”
        3. Existence of Five “Cornwalls”
          1. Introduction to the Existence of Five “Cornwalls”
          2. The Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
            • Introduction to the Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
            • In what is now Northern Scotland
            • 1153 BC/AD 83 to AD 552/700
            • Not too far from the Damnonii
            • Not too far from the Votadini
              • Portion of which became Lothian/Guotodin/Gododdin
              • As Loenois/Lyonesse
            • Prehistoric/Mythic era Cornavii
            • Roman era Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
            • Post-Roman era Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
              • Early Post-Roman era Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
              • Middle Post-Roman era Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
              • Late Post-Roman era Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
            • Early Mediæval era Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
          3. “Cornwall”
            • Introduction to “Cornwall”
            • Cornovii/Cornubia/Corniu/Cernieu/Cerniw/Kerniw/Kernow
            • Kerniw/Kernow/Kornoval/(West Wales)/Cornwales/(Welsh of the Horn)/Corn(e)well
            • Corn(e)well/Cornovaglia/Corno(u)aille/Corn(e)waile/Corn(e)wall(e)
            • 351 BC to AD 1066
            • Next to (sometimes part of) Dumnonia
            • Not too far from Powys
            • Next to the Isles of Scilly (as Lyonesse/Liones)
            • Prehistoric/Mythic era Cornovii — 4000 BC (351 BC) to AD 43
              • 4000 BC — Cornish Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age structures
                • Chûn Quoit
                • Boscawen-Un
                • Chysauster Ancient Village
                • First Cornish hedges
              • 2150/2000 BC
                • Mining in Cornwall has existed from the early Bronze Age
                    and it is thought that Cornwall was visited by metal traders
                    from the eastern Mediterranean. It has been suggested that
                    the Cassiterides or
                  ‘Tin Islands’ as recorded by Herodotus
                    in 445 BC may have referred to the Scilly Islands and Cornwall
                    as when first discovered were both thought to have been islands.
              • 1600 BC — Cornwall experiences a trade boom
                • Driven by the export of tin
                • Across Europe
              • 750 BC — The Iron Age reaches Cornwall
                • Permitting greater scope of agriculture
                • Through the use of new iron ploughs and axes
              • 351 BC — The Cornovii emerge as a distinct people
              • 330/320 BC — Pytheas of Massilia/Marseilles
                • A Greek merchant and explorer
                       — Circumnavigated the British Isles between c 330 BC and 320 BC
                       — Produced the first written record of the islands
                • He described the Cornish as
                       — Civilised
                       — Skilled farmers
                       — Usually peaceable
                       — Formidable in war
              • 60 BC — Greek historian Diodorus Siculus
                • Named Cornwall “Belerion”
                • “The Shining Land”
                • The first recorded place name in the British Isles
              • 43 BC — First attempted invasion of British Mainland by Julius Caesar
                • Over the next century
                • The Romans came to rule Cornwall
                • As part of Dumnonia
              • AD 43 — Claudian invasion of Britain begins
                • Roman control of Cornwall comes much later
                • But at an uncertain date
            • Roman era Cornovii/Cornubia/Cornyw/Corniu/Cernieu/Cerniw/Kerniw/Kernow — AD 43 to AD 410
              • AD 43 — Claudian invasion of Britain begins
                • Roman control of Cornwall comes much later
                • But at an uncertain date
              • AD 55 to AD 60 — Construction of Nanstallon Roman fort near Bodmin
                • One of only a few Roman sites in Cornwall
                • Roman villa at Magor Farm near Camborne occupied
              • AD 360 and after – various Germanic peoples came to Roman Britain
                • Raiders
                • Roman armies recruited from among German tribes
                • Authorised settlers, such as Aelle of Sussex
              • AD 400 — Cornwall’s native name (Kernow) appeared on record
                • The Ravenna Cosmography
                • Compiled c AD 700 from Roman material 300 years older
                • Lists a route running westward into Cornwall
                • On this route is a place then called Durocornovio
                       — Latinised from British “Celtic”
                       — duno-Cornouio-nFortress of the Cornish people
                       — In Latin, ‘V’ was pronounced as a ‘W’
                       — The fortress name refers to Tintagel(?)
              • AD 410 — Emperor Honorius recalls the last legions from Britain
                • There is some uncertainty
                • Some say that this “rescript” refers not to Britannia/Britain
                • But to Bruttium/Britain in Italy
            • Post-Roman era Cornyw/Corniu/Cernieu/Cerniw/Kerniw/Kernow — AD 410 to AD 550
              • Early Post-Roman era Cornyw/Corniu/Cernieu/Cerniw/Kerniw/Kernow — AD 410 to AD 477
                • AD 410 — Emperor Honorius recalls the last legions from Britain
                       — There is some uncertainty
                       — Some say that this “rescript” refers not to Britannia/Britain
                       — But to Bruttium/Britain in Italy
                • AD 433 — The Britons call the Angles/Angli
                       — To come and help them as mercenaries
                       — Against the Picts
                • c AD 446 — The “Groans of the Britons” last appeal
                       — Possibly to the Consul Aetius
                       — For the Roman army to come back to Britain
                • Mid-5th century AD
                       — First waves of settlers from Cornwall, and Devon
                       — Go to Brittany
              • Middle Post-Roman era Cornyw/Corniu/Cernieu/Cerniw/Kerniw/Kernow — AD 477 to AD 523
                • Late-5th century AD
                       — King Mark, of Tristan and Isolde fame, probably ruled during this period
                       — According to Cornish folklore, Mark held court at Tintagel
                       — King Salomon, father of Saint Cybi, ruled after Mark
                • AD 490 to AD 510
                       — Likely range of dates for the Battle of Mons Badonicus
                       — In which Romano-British “Celts”
                       — Defeated an invading Anglo-Saxon army
                • c AD 491 — Cornish written language emerges
                • AD 500 — The Kingdom of Cornwall emerged c 6th century AD
                       — Which included the tribes of the Dumnonii
                       — And the Cornish Cornovii (as opposed to those who were from what is now the Midlands)
                       — Origins of the Kingdom of Wessex are also in this period
              • Late Post-Roman era Cornyw/Corniu/Cernieu/Cerniw/Kerniw/Kernow — AD 523 to AD 550
                • AD 535/536 — Extreme weather events cause European famine
                • After AD 540s — Plague of Justinian, affected all of Europe
            • Early Mediæval era Kerniw/Kernow/Kornoval/(West Wales)/Cornwales/(Welsh of the Horn)/Corn(e)well — AD 550 to AD 871
              • AD 577 — Battle of Deorham Down near Bristol
                • Results in the separation of the West Welsh (the Cornish)
                • From the Welsh
                • By the advance of the Saxons
                • The earliest Cornish saints systematically convert Cornwall
                • To Christianity, a considerable period before the conversion
                • Of the Anglo-Saxon peoples
                • Of England (the territory east of the River Tamar)
                • According to tradition
                       — These early monastic foundations
                       — Were made by Christian preachers
                       — Or Christian Druids from other “Celtic” lands
                  •      Mainly Ireland (as in the cases of Saint Piran and Saint Gwinear)
                         Wales (as in the case of Saint Petroc and the Children of Brychan)
                         And Brittany (as in the case of Saint Mylor)
              • AD 664 — The Synod of Whitby
                • Determines that England
                • Is again an ecclesiastical province of Rome
                • With its formal structure of dioceses and parishes
                • The Celtic Church in Dumnonia
                       — Is not party to the decision
                       — And the Cornish Church remains monastic in nature
              • AD 682 — Centwine, King of Wessex
                • Drove the Britons of the West at the sword’s point as far as the sea
                • This resulted in the West Saxon occupation
                • Of the north-eastern district of Cornwall
                • Even today several Saxon place names are found in that area
                       — Widemouth (wid)
                       — Canworthy (worthig)
                       — Crackington Haven (hæfen)
                       — Otterham (hamm)
              • AD 710 — Battle of Lining
                • Probably between the rivers Lynher and Tamar
                • Resulted from King Geraint of Cornwall’s refusal
                • To allow the Celtic church to follow the call of the English church
                       — Which was perhaps 300 years younger
                       — To conform to the standards of Rome
                • The battle was fought against
                       — The West Saxon King Ine
                       — And his kinsman, Nonna
              • AD 722 — Battle of Hehil
                • The Cornish Britons together with their friends and allies
                • Push back a West-Saxon offensive at “Hehil”
                • Unlocated, but probably somewhere in modern Devon
              • AD 807 — Unsuccessful Cornish alliance with Danes
              • AD 815 — The Anglo Saxon Chronicle states
                • & þy geare gehergade Ecgbryht cyning on West Walas from easteweardum oþ westewearde.
                •    ...and in this year king Ecgbryht harried on West Wales [Cornwall] from east to west.
              • AD 825 — The Battle of Gafulforda
                • At an uncertain location
                • Thought to be Galford, near Lewdown in West Devon
                • The Anglo Saxon Chronicle only states
                  • The Wealas (Cornish)
                      and the Defnas (men of Devon)
                      fought at Gafalforda.
              • AD 838 — Battle of Hingston Down
                • The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that the Cornish
                • In alliance with the Danes
                • Were defeated by Egbert of Wessex at “Hengestesdun”
                • Generally considered to be Hingston Down in eastern Cornwall
            • True Mediæval era Corn(e)well/Cornovaglia/Corno(u)aille/Corn(e)waile/Corn(e)wall(e) — AD 871 to AD 1485 (AD 1066)
              • AD 875 — King Dungarth (Donyarth)
                • Of Cerniu (“id est Cornubiae”)
                • Drowns in what is thought to be the River Fowey
              • AD 880s — the Church in Cornwall
                • Is having more Saxon priests appointed to it
                • They control some church estates like
                       — Polltun/Pawton
                       — Caellwic/Celliwig/Kellywick
                       — And Landwithan/Lawhitton
                • Eventually they passed these over to Wessex kings
                • According to Alfred the Great’s will
                       — The amount of land he owned
                       — In Cornwall
                       — Was very small
              • Late 9th century AD — The earliest(?) known example of written Cornish
                • Is a gloss in a late 9th century Latin manuscript
                • Of De Consolatione Philosophiae by Boethius
                • Which used the words “ud rocashaas”
                • The phrase means “it (the mind) hated the gloomy places”
              • AD 926 — The entry in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reads
                •  ...“This year fiery lights appeared in the north part of the heavens.
                       And Sihtric perished
                  :
                       and king Aethelstan obtained the kingdom of the North-humbrians.
                       And he ruled all the kings who were in this island
                  :
                                 first, Huwal king of the West-Welsh (Cornish);
                                 and Constantine king of the Scots;
                                 and Uwen king of the people of Guent;
                                 and Ealdred, son of Ealdulf, of Bambrough:
                       and they confirmed the peace
                                 by pledge
                                 and by oaths
                                 at the place which is called Eamot
                                 on the 4th of the ides of July
                  [12 July]
                                 and they renounced all idolatry
                                 and after that submitted to him in peace
              • AD 927 — Athelstan (as said by William of Malmesbury c AD 1120)
                • Evicted the Cornish from Exeter and perhaps the rest of Devon
                • Exeter was cleansed of its defilement by wiping out that filthy race
                • The area inside the city walls still known today as ‘Little Britain’
                       — Is the quarter where most of the Cornish Romano-British aristocracy had their town houses
                       — From which the Cornish were expelled
                • Under Athelstan’s statutes
                       — It eventually became unlawful for any Cornishman to own land
                       — Lawful for any Englishman to kill any Cornishman (or woman or child)
              • AD 928 — It is thought that the Cornish King Huwal
                • “King of the West Welsh”
                • Was one of several kings
                       — Who signed a treaty
                       — With Aethelstan of Wessex
                       — At Egmont Bridge
              • AD 930 — Armes Prydein, (Prophecy of Britain)
                • This early Welsh poem mentions ‘Cornyw’
                • The “Celtic” name for Cornwall
                • It foretells that the Welsh
                       — Together with Cornwall, Brittany, Ireland and Cumbria
                       — Would expel the English from Britain
                • This poem also demonstrates
                       — Any early allegiance
                       — Between the “Celtic” people of Britain
              • AD 936 — Athelstan fixed Cornwall’s eastern boundary
                • As the east bank
                • Of the Tamar
                • There is no record of Athelstan taking his campaigns into Cornwall
                • It seems probable that Huwal, King of the Cornish
                       — Agreed to pay tribute
                       — Thus avoiding further attacks
                       — And maintaining a high degree of autonomy
                • Prior to this the West Saxons had pushed their frontier
                       — Across the Tamar as far west as the River Lynher
                       — But this was only temporary
                       — It was long enough for Saxon settlement and land charters
                       — To influence our modern day inheritance of placenames
                  •          between Lynher and Tamar
                             there are today many more English
                             than Cornish place names
                             as is also the case in that other debatable land
                             between Ottery and Tamar in north Cornwall
              • AD 944 — Athelstan’s successor
                • Edmund I of England
                • Styled himself “King of the English and ruler of this province of the Britons”
              • AD 981 — The Vikings
                • Lay waste “Petroces stow” (probably Padstow)
                • According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
              • AD 986 — Olaf Tryggvason allegedly visits the Isles of Scilly
              • AD 997 — The Dartmoor town of Lydford
                • Near the Cornish/Wessex border
                • Just east of the Tamar
                • Completely destroyed by an angry mob of Danish Vikings
                • The surprise attack on Lydford is ordered
                       — By the King of Denmark
                       — And Viking leader Sweyn Forkbeard
                • Lydford was believed to be impregnable against Viking attack
                • Cornwall is left alone
                       — As Sweyn Forkbeard has no intention of crushing Cornwall
                       — Unlike Wessex
              • AD 1013 — Cornwall’s enemy and Anglo-Saxon neighbour, Wessex
                • Crushed and conquered by a Danish army
                • Under the leadership of the Viking leader
                • And King of Denmark Sweyn Forkbeard
                • Sweyn annexes Wessex to his Viking empire which includes
                       — Denmark
                       — Norway
                • He does not annex Cornwall, Wales, and Scotland
                       — Allowing these “client nations” self-rule
                       — In return for an annual payment of tribute or “danegeld”
              • AD 1014-1035 — The Kingdoms of Cornwall, Wales, and much of Scotland and Ireland
                • Were not included in the territories
                • Of King Canute the Great
              • AD 1016 — Famine throughout Europe
              • AD 1066 — Norman Conquest brings many Bretons into Cornwall
                • The Cornish and Breton languages are mutually intelligible at this point
                • According to William of Worcester
                       — Writing in the Fifteenth Century AD
                       — Cadoc
                  •       The last survivor of the Cornish royal line
                          at the time of the Norman Conquest
                • William the Conqueror
                •      — May have granted Cornwall
                       — To Brian of Brittany
          4. The Cornovii
            • Introduction to the Cornovii
            • In what is now the Midlands
            • AD 47 to AD 460
            • Not too far from Dumnonia
            • Next to the Ordovices (a porton of which became Powys)
            • Roman era Cornovii
            • Early Post-Roman era Cornovii
          5. The Cernyw/Glywyssing/(Mid-South Wales)/(Gwynllg & Edeligion, Penychen & Gorfynedd)/Morgannwg/Glamorgan
            • Introduction to the Cernyw/Glywyssing/(Mid-South Wales)/(Gwynllg & Edeligion, Penychen & Gorfynedd)/Morgannwg/Glamorgan
            • AD 383 to AD 1093
            • Near to Dumnonia
            • Near to Powys
            • Roman era Cernyw/Glywyssing/(Mid-South Wales)
            • Post-Roman era Cernyw/Glywyssing/(Mid-South Wales)
              • Early Post-Roman era Cernyw/Glywyssing/(Mid-South Wales)
              • Middle Post-Roman era Cernyw/Glywyssing/(Mid-South Wales)/(Gwynllg & Edeligion, Penychen & Gorfynedd)
              • Late Post-Roman era (Gwynllg & Edeligion, Penychen & Gorfynedd)/Glywyssing
            • Early Mediæval era (Gwynllg & Edeligion, Penychen & Gorfynedd)/Glywyssing
            • True Mediæval era Glywyssing
          6. The Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
            • Introduction to the Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
            • In what is now Brittany
            • AD 387 to AD 1093
            • Near to Domnonia
            • Next to Poher
            • Next to Léon (Leonais as Lyonesse)
            • Roman era Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
            • Post-Roman era Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
              • Early Post-Roman era Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
              • Middle Post-Roman era Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
              • Late Post-Roman era Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
            • Early Mediæval era Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
            • True Mediæval era Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
        4. Comparison of Other Places to “Cornwall”
      3. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of “Cornwall”
        1. Geography of “Cornwall”
        2. Genealogy of “Cornwall”
        3. Timeline of “Cornwall”
    3. The History of Wales
      1. Introduction to The History of Wales
      2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
             The Name “Wales”, Multiple “Wales”, and Additional Places Similar to Wales
        1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
               The Name “Wales”, Multiple “Wales”, and Additional Places Similar to Wales
        2. Meaning and Origin of The Name “Wales”
          1. Veales
          2. Weal(h)a(s)
        3. Existence of Multiple “Wales”
          1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple “Wales”
          2. North Wales — Cymru
            • Damnonii
            • Alt Clut/Alt Clud/Strathclyde-Cumbria
            • Votadini/(Manau Guotodin)
          3. South Wales
            • Non-Cymru
            • Indigenous Peoples in what is now the Whole of Wales
        4. Comparison of Other Places to Wales
      3. Prehistoric/Mythic era Wales
        1. Neanderthals — from c 228,000 BC
        2. Homo sapiens — from c 31,000 BC
        3. Continuous habitation by Modern Humans — from c 9,000 BC onward
      4. Roman era Wales/Cymru — AD 48 to AD 383
        1. AD 48 — The Roman conquest of Wales began
        2. AD 78 — Roman conquest completed
        3. AD 383 — Roman rule ended
      5. Post-Roman era Wales/Cymru — AD 383 to AD 550
        1. AD 383 — Magnus Maximus declares himself Emperor
        2. AD 410 — The Roman garrison of Britain was withdrawn
      6. Early Mediæval era Wales/Cymru — AD 550 to AD 871
      7. True Mediæval era Wales — AD 871 to AD 1485
        1. Wales/Cymru — AD 871 to AD 1050
        2. Princes of Wales — AD 1050 to AD 1289
        3. English Princes of Wales — AD 1289 to AD 1485
      8. Early Modern era Wales — AD 1485 to AD 1624
        1. English Princes of Wales — AD 1485 to AD 1523
        2. True Early Modern era Wales — AD 1523 to AD 1624
      9. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of Wales
        1. Geography of Wales
        2. Genealogy of Wales
        3. Timeline of Wales
    4. The History of France
      1. Introduction to The History of France
      2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
             The Name “France”, Another Kind of “France”, and Additional Places Similar to France
        1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
               The Name “France”, Another Kind of “France”, and Additional Places Similar to France
        2. Meaning and Origin of the Name “France”
        3. Existence of Another Kind of “France”
          1. Introduction to the Existence of Another Kind of “France”
          2. Vannetais/Briezh (what is now Brittany)
          3. Non-Briezh (the remainder of Gaul)
            • Belgae
            • Aquitani
        4. Comparison of Other Places to France
      3. Roman era Gaul
      4. Post-Roman era France
        1. Early Post-Roman era France
        2. Middle Post-Roman era France
        3. Late Post-Roman era France
      5. Early Mediæval era France
      6. True Mediæval era France
      7. Early Modern era France
      8. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of France
        1. Geography of France
        2. Genealogy of France
        3. Timeline of France
  6. The History of The Saxons, Romans, Picts, Scots, and The Irish
    1. Introduction to The History of The Saxons, Romans, Picts, Scots, and The Irish
    2. The History of The “Saxons”
      1. Introduction to The History of The “Saxons”
      2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
             The Name “Saxon”, Migrations of The “Saxons”, and Additional Peoples Compared to The “Saxons”
        1. Introduction to The Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
               The Name “Saxon”, Migrations of The “Saxons”, and Additional Peoples Compared to The “Saxons”
        2. Meaning and Origin of the Name “Saxon”
        3. Migrations of The “Saxons”
          1. Introduction to The Migrations of The “Saxons”
          2. The Angles/Angli
          3. The Saxons
          4. The Jutes/Iuti/Iutæ
          5. The (Herulo-/Erila-)Frisians
        4. Comparison of Other Peoples to The “Saxons”
      3. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of The “Saxons”
        1. Geography of The “Saxons”
          1. Introduction to The Geography of The “Saxons”
          2. Geography of The Angles/Angli
          3. Geography of The Saxons
          4. Geography of The Jutes/Iuti/Iutæ
          5. Geography of The (Herulo-/Erila-)Frisians
        2. Genealogy of The “Saxons”
          1. Introduction to The Genealogy of The “Saxons”
          2. Genealogy of The Angles/Angli
          3. Genealogy of The Saxons
          4. Genealogy of The Jutes/Iuti/Iutæ
          5. Genealogy of The (Herulo-/Erila-)Frisians
        3. Timeline of The “Saxons”
          1. Introduction to The Timeline of The “Saxons”
          2. Timeline of The Angles/Angli
          3. Timeline of The Saxons
          4. Timeline of The Jutes/Iuti/Iutæ
          5. Timeline of The (Herulo-/Erila-)Frisians
    3. The History of The Romans
      1. Introduction to The History of The Romans
      2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
             The Name “Roman”, Roman Settlements, and Roman-related Peoples
        1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
               The Name “Roman”, Roman Settlements, and Roman-related Peoples
        2. Meaning and Origin of the Name “Roman”
        3. Settlements of The Romans
        4. Comparison of Other Peoples to The Romans
      3. Roman era Britain — AD 43 to AD 410
        1. Introduction to Roman era Britain — AD 43 to AD 410
        2. AD 43 to AD 46
        3. AD 47 to AD 61
        4. AD 62 to AD 69
        5. AD 70 to AD 79
        6. AD 80 to AD 88
        7. AD 89
        8. AD 90 to AD 200
        9. AD 201 to AD 381
        10. AD 382 to AD 409
        11. AD 410
      4. Post-Roman era Britain — AD 410 to AD 550
        1. Early Post-Roman era Britain — AD 410 to AD 477
          1. Introduction to Early Post-Roman era Britain — AD 410 to AD 477
          2. AD 410 to AD 425
          3. AD 426 to AD 449
          4. AD 450 to AD 470
          5. AD 471 to AD 474
          6. AD 475
          7. AD 476 to AD 477
        2. Middle Post-Roman era Britain — AD 477 to AD 523
          1. Introduction to Middle Post-Roman era Britain — AD 477 to AD 523
          2. AD 477 to AD 484
          3. AD 485 to AD 486
          4. AD 487 to AD 499
          5. AD 500
          6. AD 501 to AD 509
          7. AD 510 to AD 511
          8. AD 512 to AD 516
          9. AD 517 to AD 523
        3. Late Post-Roman era Britain — AD 523 to AD 550
          1. Introduction to Late Post-Roman era Britain — AD 523 to AD 550
          2. AD 523 to AD 524
          3. AD 525
          4. AD 526 to AD 529
          5. AD 530 to AD 534
          6. AD 535
          7. AD 536 to AD 537
          8. AD 538 to AD 539
          9. AD 540 to AD 549
          10. AD 550
      5. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of The Romans
        1. Geography of The Romans
        2. Genealogy of The Romans
        3. Timeline of The Romans
    4. The History of The Picts
      1. Introduction to The History of The Picts
      2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
             The Name “Pict”, Pict Settlements, and Pict-related Peoples
        1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
               The Name “Pict”, Pict Settlements, and Pict-related Peoples
        2. Meaning and Origin of the Name “Pict”
          1. Qritani/Cru(i)th(i)n(i)/Cruithne
          2. Πρετ(τ)αν(ν)οί/Pret(t)an(n)oi/Prettanikē/Pretani/(painted ones)/Pritani/Priteni
          3. Prydyn/Prydain
          4. Βρίττωνες/Brittones/Brit(t)anni
          5. Pixti/Pexti/Picti/(painted ones)/Peohtas
          6. Albidosi
        3. Settlements of The “Picts”
          1. Picti
            • Caledonii
            • Cornavii
            • Decantae
            • Epidii
            • Lugi
            • Smertae
            • Taexali
            • Vacomagi
          2. Iverni
          3. Pictones/Pictavii
        4. Comparison of Other Peoples to The Picts
      3. Prehistoric/Mythic era “Picts” — c 898,000 BC to AD 43
        1. First Human Inhabitants (Homo antecessor) — c 898,000 BC
        2. Homo heidelbergensis — c 498,000 BC
        3. Very Early Neanderthals — c 398,000 BC
        4. Classic Neanderthals — c 223,000 BC
        5. Neanderthal occupation of Britain — c 178,000 BC to c 58,000 BC
        6. Human/Neanderthal Hybrids (Homo sapiens) occupied Britain — c 38,000 BC
        7. Neolithic culture — c 4000 BC
        8. “Beaker” Folk — c 2500 BC
        9. Kings of the Picts — 1153 BC to AD 43
      4. Roman era Kings of The Picts — AD 43 to AD 410
      5. Post-Roman era Kings of The Picts — AD 410 to AD 550
      6. Early Mediæval era Picts
        1. Kings of the Picts — AD 550 to AD 552
        2. Pictlands
          1. North Pictland — AD 552 to AD 697
          2. South Pictland — AD 552 to AD 697
        3. United Pictland — AD 697 to AD 850
      7. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of The Picts
        1. Geography of The Picts
        2. Genealogy of The Picts
        3. Timeline of The Picts
    5. The History of The Scots
      1. Introduction to The History of The Scots
      2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
             The Name “Scot”, Scot Settlements, and Scot-related Peoples
        1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
               The Name “Scot”, Scot Settlements, and Scot-related Peoples
        2. Meaning and Origin of the Name “Scot”
        3. Settlements of The Scots
        4. Comparison of Other Peoples to The Scots
      3. Post-Roman era Scots
        1. Early Post-Roman era Scots
          1. Kings of Dalriada/(Dál Riata)/(Dæl Reoda)
          2. AD 474 to AD 477
        2. Middle Post-Roman era Scots
          1. Kings of Dalriada/(Dál Riata)/(Dæl Reoda)
          2. AD 477 to AD 523
        3. Late Post-Roman era Scots
          1. Kings of Dalriada/(Dál Riata)/(Dæl Reoda)
          2. AD 523 to AD 550
      4. Early Mediæval era Scots
        1. Kings of Dalriada/(Dál Riata)/(Dæl Reoda) — AD 550 to AD 850
        2. Kings of Scotland — Kings of Scots and Picts
          1. House of Alpin
          2. AD 850 to AD 871
      5. True Mediæval era Scots — Kings of Scotland
        1. House of Alpin — AD 871 to AD 1034
        2. House of Atholl — AD 1034 to AD 1040
        3. House of Alpin — AD 1040 to AD 1058
        4. House of Atholl/Canmore — AD 1058 to AD 1292
        5. House of Balliol — AD 1292 to AD 1304
        6. House of Bruce — AD 1304 to AD 1371
        7. House of Stewart — AD 1371 to AD 1485
      6. Early Modern era Scots — House of Stewart
        1. Kings of Scotland — AD 1485 to AD 1603
        2. Under English rule — AD 1603 to AD 1635
      7. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of The Scots
        1. Geography of The Scots
        2. Genealogy of The Scots
        3. Timeline of The Scots
    6. The History of The Irish
      1. Introduction to The History of The Irish
      2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
             The Name “Irish”, Irish Settlements, and Irish-related Peoples
        1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
               The Name “Irish”, Irish Settlements, and Irish-related Peoples
        2. Meaning and Origin of the Name “Irish”
        3. Settlements of The Irish
        4. Comparison of Other Peoples to The Irish
      3. Prehistoric/Mythic era Irish
        1. Very First Inhabitants — 9500 BC
        2. Daughters of Delbáeth/Bith/Bitu/(world/life/age) and his wife Ernmas/Birren
          1. Banb(h)a/(Ces(s)air/Ceasair/Kesair), wife of Fintán (son of Bóchra and Cuill)
          2. (Fótla/Fódla/Fod(h)la)/(Ba(i)rr(fh)ind/Barrann/Burran(/Birren)), wife of Bith mac Cecht
          3. (É(i)riu/Éire/Īwerjū/(fat land, fertile))/(Alba/Balva/(british)), wife of Ladra mac Gréine (grandson of the Dagda)
          4. Sumerian
          5. c 3065 BC
        3. Partholán/Partholoim/Partholomus/Partholanians
          1. Left Greece c 2760 BC
          2. Arrived c 2753 BC
          3. c 2751 BC, they encountered Fomorians
          4. Lived until c 2603 BC
        4. Fomóraigh/Fomorians
          1. NonCeltiberian/Heavy Neanderthal admixture
          2. High Kings of Ireland/Hieriyo
          3. 2751 BC to 1287 BC
        5. Nemed(ians)
          1. Sumerian/Belgae admixture
          2. Arrived c 2573 BC
          3. c 2564 BC, most died of a plague
        6. Fir Bolg/Firbolgs
          1. Belgae/former slaves to the Greeks
          2. High Kings of Ireland/Hieriyo
          3. 2334 BC to 1477 BC
        7. Tuatha dé Danann
          1. Oetzi/Belgae admixture
          2. High Kings of Ireland/Hieriyo
          3. 2334 BC to 1287 BC
        8. Goídelic/Gaelic/Celtiberian/Milesian
          1. Scythian
          2. Moved to Egypt
          3. Moved back to Scythia
          4. Moved to Basque (Spain)
          5. High Kings of Ireland/Hieriyo
          6. 1287 BC to AD 43
      4. Roman era Irish
        1. Goídelic/Gaelic/Celtiberian/Milesian
          1. High Kings of Ireland
          2. AD 43 to AD 368
        2. Historical Ireland — AD 368 to AD 410
      5. Post-Roman era Irish
        1. Historical Ireland
        2. AD 410 to AD 550
      6. Early Mediæval era Irish
        1. Historical Ireland
        2. AD 550 to AD 871
      7. True Mediæval era Irish
        1. Historical Ireland — AD 871 to AD 1177/1183
        2. Lordship and Kingdom of Ireland — AD 1177/1183 to AD 1485
      8. Early Modern era Irish — Lordship and Kingdom of Ireland
        1. AD 1485 to AD 1542
        2. AD 1543 to AD 1635
      9. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of The Irish
        1. Geography of The Irish
        2. Genealogy of The Irish
        3. Timeline of The Irish
Afterword by Caleb Howells

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
 
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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