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Sir Lancelot of the Lake,
Best Knight of Logres

None of the line items that are included in the following outline are meant to be links.
The outline itself represents the material that is to be covered in the upcoming book known by the above title (available after December 2029).

Foreword by Meredith L Mackworth-Praed

  1. Introduction to Sir Lancelot of the Lake, Best Knight of Logres
  2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Lancelot’s Name, Another Lancelot, and Other Similar Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Heroes/Gods
    1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Lancelot’s Name, Another Lancelot, and Other Similar Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Heroes/Gods
    2. Meaning and Origin of Lancelot’s Name
      1. Introduction to the Meaning and Origin of Lancelot’s Name
      2. Lamhcalad/Llachlue/Llancalet
      3. Lanzo-el-ot/Landą-el-ot/(land diminutive)
      4. Lanslod/Lawnslot
      5. Alanus-à-Lot
      6. Lancelin/Askalos/L’Askelot/L’Ancelot/La(u)ncelot
      7. His epithet ((d(e)(u))/(of the) Lak(e)/Lac)/(Deulake)
    3. Existence of Another Lancelot
      1. Lancelot de la Blance Terre
      2. Son of Jonah/Jonaan(s)
      3. Grandfather of Lancelot du Lac
    4. Comparison of Other Similar Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Heroes/Gods to Lancelot
      1. Μόψος/Mopsos/Mopsus/Mukšuš/Moxus
      2. Lugos/Lugus/(Lug(h) (Lámhf(h)ada/Lonbemnech (of the Long Arm)))/(Lleu/Llew Llaw Gyffes (Lleu of the Skillful Hand))
        1. Son of:
          1. Cian and Ethniu/Ethliu/Étain
          2. Or Gwydion and Arianrhod
        2. Gaulish/Irish/Welsh Solar God
        3. Warrior, King, Master Craftsman, and Saviour
        4. Associated with Skill and Mastery in Multiple Disciplines, including the Arts; also has associations with Oaths, Truth and the Law (and with Rightful Kingship)
        5. Flourished 2089/2053 BC
      3. ((Llaw/Llwch) Lleminawc)/(Llenlleawc/Llenlleawg (Wyddel))/Llawwynnauc/Llawwynnyawc
        1. (Llaw/Llwch) Lleminawc
        2. Llenlleawc/Llenlleawg (Wyddel)
        3. Llawwynnauc/Llawwynnyawc
      4. (Cú Chulainn)/(Cú Chulaind)/Cúchulain(n)/Cuhullin, son of Lugh and Deichtine (wife of Sualtam mac Róich)
      5. Mider/Mid(h)ir, son of the Dagda
      6. Diarmuid/(Diarmaid Ua Duibhne)/(Diarmid O’Dyna)/(Diarmuid of the Love Spot)
      7. Anguselaus
      8. Gronw Pebr/(the radiant)
        1. Warrior, Hunter and Antagonist in Welsh tradition
        2. Lord of Penllyn
        3. Lover of Blodeuwedd
        4. Murderer of Lleu Llaw Gyffes
      9. Gwawl fab Clud
      10. Gwyn(n)(was) ap Nudd
      11. Floriant
      12. Uverian/Uthyr/(Uther (Pendragon))/(Uter Pandragon)/Utherpendragon/(Ythr ben dragwn)/(crudelisque tyrannus)
      13. Wlanca
        1. Flourished AD 455 to AD 476
        2. Died AD 526
      14. King Maelgw(y)n/Malgo of Gwynedd
      15. Fraimbauld/Fraimbault
      16. Heru/Hor(us)
      17. Bidadari
      18. Batra(d)z/Pataraz
      19. Bran
      20. Pedro González de Lara(lot)
      21. William(e)/Guillaume (the)/li/le Marshal/Mareschal/Maréchal, 1st Earl of Pembroke
        1. Born AD 1146/1147
        2. Died 14 May 1219
  3. Beginnings
    1. Family
      1. Introduction to Family
      2. Father
        1. King Ban/(leader) de/of Benwyck/Benwick/Benoic/Benoyc
        2. King Pant of Gen(n)ewis
        3. Domorot of Lokva
        4. Haud of Schuwake
      3. Mother
        1. Queen Elaine of Benwick/Benoic/Benoyc
        2. Queen Clarine — Arthur’s Sister
        3. Gostanza
      4. Uncle — King Bors
      5. Aunt — Queen Evaine
      6. Brother — (H)ector (of the Fens)/(de Maris)
      7. Sisters
        1. Mother of Bleoberis and Blamore
        2. [Guinevere]
      8. Cousins
        1. Sir Lionel
        2. Sir Bors de/of Ganis/Gaunnes
      9. Mentor/Guardian (self-appointed)
        1. Viviane, French Dam(o)sel/Lady of the Lake
        2. Nimue, Chief Lady of the Lake
        3. Nin(n)iane
        4. (Mātronā/Modron)/(Morgan le Fay)/(Queen of Maiden Land)/(Lady of the Sea)
      10. Sons
        1. Galahad (by Elaine/Helen/Amite/Helizabel/(Gwallwen) of Carbonek/Corben(ic)/Corbin)
        2. Galec
        3. unnamed son of Martha
      11. Daughter — unnamed maiden of Corbania
    2. Birth and Childhood
      1. Christened with the Name of Galahad
      2. His father
        1. Is driven from his kingdom by his enemy King Claudas de la Deserte
        2. Or is tyrannical and slain by his own nobles
      3. Lancelot was an infant when his parents fled their city/castle at Trebe with a few retainers
      4. King Ban suffered a seizure
        1. Possibly a heart attack
        2. Or he is wounded in an attack
        3. (Or dies of grief after his wife dies in childbirth)
      5. Queen Elaine, hurrying to King Ban, left her son alone for a few moments
      6. In other tales, Queen Elaine dies giving birth to Galahad (Lancelot)
      7. It was then that a fairy, Lady/Dam(o)sel of the Lake (“Queen of Maiden Land”, “Lady of the Sea”), took (stole) him
        1. (She is Viviane, Nimue, Nin(n)iane, Mātronā, Modron, or Morgan le Fay)
        2. She brought him to her rich city in an illusory magical Lake
          1. At Bois en Val (Woods in the Valley)
          2. Her realm is sometimes known as Maiden Land
        3. She raised him
        4. His renaming as Lancelot
          1. In some tales, she renamed him
            • As Lancelot du Lac
            • Or would not tell him his name until he had fought Iweret of Beforet
          2. In other stories
            • He received his name at a later time
            • By removing a slab
            • Early in his “knightly” career
      8. In the tales where she did not die in childbirth, the widow Queen Elaine remained nearby
        1. Built the Royal Minster
        2. On the hill where King Ban had died
      9. Fate of Lancelot’s double-cousins, Lionel and Bors
        1. They are taken by a knight of King Claudas
        2. The Lady of the Lake’s sorcerous damsel Seraide (Saraïde/Saraiade, Celise/Celice) rescues Lionel and Bors from King Claudas
        3. Along with their mentors, they were welcomed into the fairy Lady’s Lake
        4. There, along with Lancelot, they finished their knightly education
          1. Teaching Lancelot arts and writing
          2. Infusing him with wisdom and courage
          3. Overseeing his training to become an unsurpassed warrior
      10. Both Evaine and Elaine enter a nunnery
      11. Following a vision of Lancelot and his cousins in the Lady of the Lake’s garden
        1. Both queens are happy
        2. Evaine dies
      12. At the Lady of the Lake’s palace
        1. Lancelot grew up among the company of women and faery-like mermen
        2. He quickly developed great strength and skill in the use of all manner of weapons
        3. Johfrit de Liez trained him as a knight
    3. Becoming a Knight
      1. When Lancelot reached 18 years of age, he really wanted to become a knight
        1. Lady of the Lake gave him a lecture on the history and duties of that state of life
        2. Provided him with things he would need
          1. A sword of proven worth
            • Possibly called Aro(u)ndight/Arondite/Alondite
            • Had mystical powers
            • Molded by the stars
            • Represented the hopes and dreams of people
          2. A snow-white horse
          3. The rest of his outfit, all in white and silver
          4. Gave him a ring whose stone had the power to free him
            • From any spell
            • Or magical illusion
        3. She brought him to Arthur’s court
          1. (In some tales, he is still known simply as the “White Knight”)
          2. Accompanied by Lionel, Bors, Seraide, and others
          3. On Saint John’s Day
            • The King then dubbed him a knight
            • (Not consistently of the Round Table, at this point)
      2. In other stories, he then became a member of the Queen’s Knights
      3. Early Adventure — Lancelot falls in love with the Queen (either after or before his first outing)
        1. In some versions
          1. One of his first tasks was to fetch Guinevere
          2. To Camelot/Camu-lôt
          3. For Arthur
        2. In others tales
          1. One of Lancelot’s firsts is to rescue Guinevere
          2. From Arthur’s enemy Meleagant/Meliagrant/Meliagaunce of Gor(r)e
      4. Lancelot spent time wandering in knight errantry
        1. Began when he left to succor the Lady of Nohaut
        2. He delivers her from an oppressor
        3. His first rivalry with Kay was over which of them would serve as her companion
      5. (La) Dolorous/Douloureuse G(u)ard(e) and the Copper Knight
        1. Lancelot sets out for adventure and encounters a castle guarded by the Copper Knight
        2. To meet this challenge, Lancelot must battle
          1. Ten knights at the first wall
          2. Ten knights at the second wall
          3. Finally the Copper Knight himself
        3. He defeats many more than twenty knights with the aid of the Lady of the Lake
        4. Lancelot discovers that the Copper Knight has fled
        5. The townspeople lead Lancelot to a cemetery, where he finds a metal slab
          1. The slab states that only one knight can lift the slab
          2. That this knight’s name is written beneath the slab
        6. (In this tale, Lancelot had been known until this point simply as the “White Knight”)
        7. He is able to lift the slab and discovers that his name is, in fact, Lancelot
        8. The castle Dolorous/Douloureuse G(u)ard(e)
          1. The name is changed to the Joyous/Joieuse G(u)ard(e)
          2. It becomes Lancelot’s home
      6. At Joyous/Joieuse G(u)ard(e)
        1. The court joined him for a time
        2. Dagonet found Lancelot one day
          1. Allowing his horse to wander wherever it would
          2. While Lancelot gazed in a fond trance at Guinevere
        3. Leaving Joyous/Joieuse G(u)ard(e)
          1. Lancelot became the prisoner of the Lady of Malohaut/Malehaut
          2. Who held him for the death of her seneschal’s son
          3. But allowed him to leave on parole to fight in tournament
          4. She fell in love with him when he returned
        4. Lancelot conquered Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos of Sorelois
          1. (In some stories, before becoming a knight)
          2. Winning the Duke’s allegiance for Arthur
          3. The Duke’s friendship, Lancelot won for himself
      7. Lancelot, Guinevere, Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos, and the Lady of Malohaut/Malehaut
        1. Meanwhile, (in some versions) Viviane had been softening Guinevere
        2. When next Lancelot joined the court for a time
          1. He and Guinevere declared their love
          2. With Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos of Sorelois and the Lady of Malohaut/Malehaut for go-betweens
        3. This time, when Lancelot left again
          1. He inspired perhaps the first of what was to become a standard activity
          2. A party of Arthur’s knights
            • Including Gawain and Kay
            • Went out searching for him
        4. Lancelot next joined Arthur at the siege of Camille’s fortress of La Roche
          1. Where he fought in one battle bearing Arthur’s arms
          2. And carrying Arthur’s sword Sequence/Seure/Secace
        5. Initially, Lancelot continues to serve Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos of Sorelois
          1. Eventually Arthur invites Lancelot to become a member of the Round Table
          2. Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos is invited as well
      8. Saxons invade Scotland
        1. Lancelot joins Arthur’s army there
        2. He spends his first night in Guinevere’s chambers
        3. While trying to free Arthur from a Saxon prison, Lancelot is captured
        4. He goes mad but is cured by the Lady of the Lake
        5. She approves of his romance with Guinevere
        6. With Lancelot’s help, Arthur drives away the Saxons
      9. Lancelot then becomes a Knight of the Round Table, at the behest of Sir Gawain
      10. In Ulrich von Zatzikhoven’s Lanzelet
        1. Lancelot marries the daughter of Galagandreiz
        2. After he wins the maiden
          1. From her tyrranical father/uncle
          2. Through combat
        3. Lancelot eventually abandons her
          1. Because she chose him last
          2. Out of three knights
        4. He is with a second maiden
          1. Ade, daughter of Linier
          2. She abandons him
            • When he falls under a spell
            • That makes him cowardly
        5. During this time
          1. Lancelot wins two castles
          2. He proves himself noble at a tournament
          3. Word of his fame reaches Arthur
          4. Arthur dispatches Walwein (Gawain) to retrieve Lancelot
          5. Lancelot declines to venture to Arthur’s court
        6. Lancelot finds Iweret and falls in love with his daughter, Iblis
        7. In a long battle
          1. Iweret is killed
          2. His castle, Dodone, and lands fall into Lancelot’s possession
        8. As promised, a messenger arrives and tells Lancelot his name and ancestry
        9. He marries Iweret’s daughter Iblis, with whom he has four children
        10. Lancelot’s thoughts return to his ancestral lands
          1. He travels to Gen(n)ewis and Dodone
          2. The nobles gladly turn over the kingdoms to Lancelot’s rule
          3. He and Iblis are crowned king and queen in two separate ceremonies
            • One at Gen(n)ewis
            • One at Dodone
  4. As a Knight of the Round Table
    1. In other tales, after joining the Round Table, Lancelot serves Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos of Sorelois
      1. Lancelot helped Arthur put down the rebellion of Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos
        1. Who surrendered to Arthur
        2. After observing Lancelot’s chivalry and prowess in battle
      2. Afterwards
        1. Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos of Sorelois became Lancelot’s closest friend
        2. Acted as a secret go-between Lancelot and Guinevere (as in other stories)
      3. Lancelot and Guinevere took refuge in (Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos)’s kingdom of Sorelois
      4. Guinevere the False (Genievre/Gonnere/Gonnore/Guineure/Gue(o)ni(e)vre/Gyennevre)
        1. Took the queen’s place
        2. At court
      5. After the deception was discovered
        1. Lancelot restored the true queen to Arthur
        2. By this time, Lancelot and Guinevere were irrevocably in love
      6. Genievre’s/Gonnere’s second, and temporarily successful, attempt to supplant Guinevere
        1. Followed sometime after the defeat of Camille of La Roche
        2. Saving Guinevere’s skin (literally)
          1. Lancelot retired with her
          2. To Duke (Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos)’s kingdom of Sorelois
      7. After Genievre’s/Gonnere’s death, Lancelot and Guinevere returned to their places at court
        1. Guinevere to her throne
        2. Lancelot to his seat at the Round Table
        3. While Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos let them go
          1. Despite a prophecy that he could prolong his own life
          2. By keeping Lancelot with him
    2. Lancelot rescues Gawain
      1. Immediately following the celebrations of Guinevere’s return
      2. Carados of the Dolorous Tower abducted Gawain
      3. Setting out to rescue Gawain
        1. Galeshin and Lancelot came to Morgan le Fay’s Val sans Retour (Valley of No Return)
        2. Lancelot was able to free Morgan’s prisoners here
        3. She succeeded in kidnapping him in return
        4. Morgan let him go on furlough
          1. To kill Carados
          2. And free Gawain
        5. By a ruse, she sent Lancelot’s ring (originally a ring from Guinevere) back to court
        6. With a pretended message from the knight that he would never return
      4. This drove Lancelot mad until the Dam(o)sel/Lady of the Lake
        1. Found him wandering in Cornwall
        2. And cured him
    3. In Ulrich von Zatzikhoven’s Lanzelet, Lancelot travels to the castle of Pluris
      1. Where he wins a contest
      2. Is then entrapped by the lady (queen) there (in other stories, she is Morgan le Fay)
      3. She holds him as her concubine for a time
      4. He manages to cleverly escape with the help of several Knights of the Round Table
    4. Lancelot rescues Guinevere
      1. Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos of Sorelois got a false report of Lancelot’s death
        1. He believed Lancelot was dead
        2. Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos of Sorelois died of sorrow
      2. Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e, son of King Bagdemagus, succeeded
        1. In abducting Guinevere
        2. Also taking Kay prisoner
        3. To Gor(r)e
      3. In Ulrich von Zatzikhoven’s Lanzelet
        1. Lancelot goes to Arthur’s court
        2. Discovers that Arthur is being challenged
          1. By King Valerin of the Tangled Wood (a version of Meleagant ...)
          2. For Ginovere (Guinevere)
        3. Lancelot requests permission to fight the combat
        4. Arthur allows it
        5. Valerin/Meleagant is defeated
      4. Gawain and Lancelot immediately set out to rescue Guinevere
      5. Lancelot rides ahead of Gawain, but his horse dies from exhaustion
      6. A dwarf driving a cart tells Lancelot to get in the cart if he wants to find Guinevere
        1. Lancelot hesitates for two steps before diving into the cart
        2. He continues to pursue Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e
        3. Riding in a cart is a form of humiliation reserved for criminals
        4. Lancelot is immediately branded the “Knight of the Cart”
        5. He is then subject to public scorn
      7. Gawain decides to cross a Water Bridge to reach the castle
        1. He fails
        2. Nearly drowns
        3. Gawain is removed from the action
      8. Lancelot had to cross a Sword Bridge
        1. He is badly cut by the blade
        2. Does manage to eventually free Guinevere and Kay
        3. Also frees the occupants of Gor(r)e’s “Terre Foraine“
      9. He meets Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e’s father, King Bagdemagus
      10. Bagdemagus cures Lancelot’s wounds
      11. Lancelot and Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e meet in battle
        1. In one version of the story
          1. Bagdemagus pleads with Guinevere that his son’s life would be spared
          2. So their combat was stopped, to be taken up again in a year’s time
        2. In another tale
          1. King Bagdemagus calls a truce
          2. Arranging for Guinevere to be freed
      12. Guinevere is angry at Lancelot for hesitating before entering the cart
        1. Because he put his honour above his love for her
        2. She eventually forgives him
      13. Lancelot comes to the barred window of Guinevere’s chamber at night
        1. She tells him he can enter and spend the night with her
        2. He bends the bars and climbs through, but cuts his hand in the process
        3. Lancelot leaves in the morning after a night of passion
        4. Drops of blood are discovered in Guinevere’s bed
      14. Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e accused Guinevere of adultery with Kay
        1. The wounded Kay’s bed was in the next room
        2. Lancelot duels the accuser as her champion
        3. Once again, Bagdemagus had to plead for his son’s life (or calls a halt to the fight)
      15. Lancelot enters the tournament at Noauz
        1. To test his love, Guinevere, orders him to fight as badly as possible
        2. Lancelot obediently acts like a coward
        3. On the next day, Guinevere tells him to fight his best
        4. Lancelot wins the tournament
      16. Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e imprisons Lancelot in a tower
        1. Meliagrant’s/Meliagaunce’s/Meleagant’s sister releases Lancelot
        2. He shows up at Arthur’s court
        3. Finds that Gawain is about to fight Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e
      17. Lancelot dons his armor
        1. He fights Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e
        2. Slays him in combat
        3. Thus acquitting the queen
      18. In Ulrich von Zatzikhoven’s Lanzelet
        1. Lancelot returns to Arthur’s court
        2. He finds that Ginovere/Guinevere has been abducted by Valerin (a version of Meleagant ...)
        3. Valerin’s/Meleagant’s defenses prove too strong for Arthur’s men to breach
        4. At the behest of Arthur
          1. Lancelot travels to the fortress of the wizard Malduc (in other tales, he is Merlin)
          2. To ask for help
          3. Malduc/Merlin agrees to destroy Valerin’s/Meleagant’s defenses
          4. In return, Arthur must deliver to him his old enemies: Walwein/Gawain and Erec
          5. The exchange is made and Ginovere/Guinevere is rescued
        5. In time, Lancelot leads a rescue expedition to Malduc’s/Merlin’s palace
          1. He rescues his fellows
          2. Kills the necromancer
    5. Travelling on other adventures (recounted in different tales)
      1. Lancelot finds Duke (Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos)’s grave
        1. Almost kills himself in grief
        2. Was prevented by Seraide, at whose direction
          1. He had his friend’s body taken to Joyous/Joieuse G(u)ard(e)
          2. For reburial
      2. Lancelot was gone so long on his adventures
        1. Gawaine and other knights went out searching for him again
        2. Guinevere, distraught, sent Elyzabel to France to summon Viviane (in some tales)
        3. A damsel whom Lancelot had succored
          1. Arrived at court
          2. With the news that he was still alive
          3. Which was so welcome
            • That Arthur gave the messenger her choice of castles
            • She chose Leverzep
    6. Urre/Urry of Hungary/(the Mount)
      1. Urre/Urry was a good knight in the land of Hungary
      2. He was an adventurous knight, and in all places where he might hear of any deeds of worship there would he be
      3. In Spain Urre/Urry slew an earl’s son, Sir Alphegus, in tournament
        1. In the fight Urre/Urry himself received seven great wounds
          1. Three on the head
          2. Four on the body and left hand
          3. (Might he have been a left-hander?)
        2. Alphegus’ mother, a sorceress, enchanted Urre/Urry so that his wounds would never heal
        3. Until searched (probed, or touched) by the best knight of the world
      4. Urre’s/Urry’s mother took him in a horse litter, and with his sister Felelolie and a page to take care of the horses
        1. They searched seven years through “all lands christened” for the best knight of the world
        2. Coming at last to Arthur’s court at Carlisle/Cardue(i)l/Cardoil/Caruele/Camu-lôt
        3. Urre/Urry submitted to being handled by every knight of the Round Table then on hand — a hundred and ten of them
        4. Before Lancelot returned from an adventure and healed him
      5. Soon thereafter Urre/Urry was made a knight of the Round Table
      6. Urre’s/Urry’s sister married Sir Lavaine, who was elected to the Table at the same time
      7. Sir Urre/Urry would never go from Sir Lancelot, but Sir Urre/Urry and Sir Lavaine awaited evermore upon Lancelot
        1. They were in all the court accounted for good knights, and full desirous in arms
        2. Many noble deeds they did, for they would have no rest, but ever sought adventures
      8. Urre/Urry eventually accompanied Lancelot into exile and was made Earl of Estrake
    7. Lancelot, Amable, and Elaine/Helen/Amite/Helizabel/(Gwallwen)
      1. Amable
        1. Lancelot, meanwhile, met his virgin love, Amable
        2. He was found at last by his cousin Lionel
          1. Was again separated when Lionel went off to pursue Sir Terican/Turquine
          2. Lionel was then captured by Sir Terican/Turquine while Lancelot was napping
        3. While asleep, Lancelot was captured by Morgan le Fay and her cohort
        4. He escaped through the help of Duke Rochedon’s daughter
        5. He then succored Meliagrant/Meliagaunce/Meleagant of Gor(r)e’s sister
        6. Lancelot then visited the Forest Perilous
          1. Repaid Duke Rochedon’s daughter by saving her from an unwanted marriage
          2. He forced Morgan’s friend, the Queen of Sorestan, to restore her inheritance
          3. Lancelot finally rejoined the court at a tournament in Camelot/Camu-lôt
            • Which Amable also attended
            • Where Guinevere accepted her platonic relationship with Lancelot
      2. Elaine/Helen/Amite/Helizabel/(Gwallwen) of Corben(ic)/Carbonek/Corbin
        1. After the tournament, Lancelot, Bors, Gareth, and Bagdemagus
          1. Went out looking for Lionel and Ector/Hector de Maris
          2. Saved Mordred from Maten’s men at the Castel de la Blanche Espine
        2. Lancelot eventually killed Terican/Turquine, and freed Lionel and the other prisoners
        3. Suffering from a guilty conscience
          1. Lancelot pursued quest after quest in order to be away from Guinevere
          2. He visted King Pelle(a)s/Pellam/Pellé/(Afallach) the Grail Guardian
          3. Lancelot saved Pelle(a)s’/Pellam’s/Pellé’s/(Afallach’s) daughter Elaine/Helen (in a different stories, Amite, Helizabel, and Gwallwen)
            • From a tub of boiling water
            • In which she had been imprisoned
            • By enchantment
            • For several years
        4. Brisen/Brusen, Elaine’s/Helen’s/Amite’s/Helizabel’s/(Gwallwen’) nurse
          1. Arranged for Lancelot to think Elaine/Helen/Amite/Helizabel/(Gwallwen) was Guinevere
          2. Pelles/Pellam gets Lancelot drunk
          3. Tells him that Guinevere is waiting for him at Case Castle
          4. Lancelot slept with Elaine/Helen/Amite/Helizabel/(Gwallwen)
          5. As a result, Galahad was conceived
    8. Lancelot and Mordred
      1. After a few more adventures, Lancelot fell again into Morgan le Fay’s hands
        1. She tricked him into her castle
        2. Drugged him with wine
        3. And with a powder blown into his nose
        4. She held him for two winters and a summer
        5. Lancelot painted his own history
          1. On his bedroom walls
          2. Including his love for Guinevere
        6. Inspired by a spring horse that reminded him of the Queen
          1. Lancelot finally broke the iron bars of his window
          2. He escaped
      2. He then rescued Lionel again
        1. This time from a trumped-up charge of treason
        2. In King Vagor’s country
      3. Lancelot fought Bors at Le Tertre Deuee
      4. He visited the site of his grandfather’s death in the Forest of the Boiling Well
      5. Lancelot killed Merlan le Dyable
      6. He rescued Mordred at the castle of Fontaine des Deux Sycamores
        1. Mordred at this time was still a promising young knight
        2. He won Lancelot’s praise as they travelled together
        3. Mordred saw with him the mystic stag and four lions in the forest moonlight
      7. Lancelot witnessed the revelation in the woods near Peningues
        1. This marked the turning point in Mordred’s life
        2. He parted company with Lancelot after the tournament of Peningues
        3. Lancelot had been included in the priest’s prophetic greeting of them
          1. “The two most unfortunate knights who ever lived”
          2. Lancelot was much shaken when Mordred slew the prophet
          3. Before the latter had time to predict Lancelot’s fate
      8. After the Peningues tournament
        1. Lancelot rescued Kay from attacking knights
        2. Then left in the morning with Kay’s horse and armour
    9. Lancelot goes Mad
      1. Lancelot returned to court
        1. Witnesses Sir Brumant l’Orguilleus
        2. In his attempt to sit in the Siege Perilous
      2. It had been learned that Dame Elyzabel was being held prisoner by King Claudas
      3. With the help of King Arthur
        1. Lancelot defeats Claudas
        2. Recovers his father’s kingdom
        3. Drives Claudas into exile
      4. After Claudas’ defeat
        1. Queen Elaine of Benwick/Benoic/Benoyc (in the stories where she is still alive)
        2. While at Gannes
          1. She came to visit her son, Lancelot
          2. Visits other male relatives as well
      5. After Arthur’s return from the Continent
        1. Elaine/Helen/Amite/Helizabel/(Gwallwen) of Carbonek/Corben(ic)/Corbin visits the victory celebration
        2. She tricks Lancelot into her bed, again
        3. Guinevere discovers the pair in flagrante delicto
        4. She banishes Lancelot from Camelot/Camu-lôt
        5. He then goes mad
      6. Lancelot wanders for up to two years
      7. He finally arrives at Carbonek/Corbenic/Corbin
        1. Lancelot is recognised by Elaine/Helen/Amite/Helizabel/(Gwallwen)
        2. He is restored to sanity (madness is cured) by exposure to the Grail (through a veil)
        3. Given Joyous/Joieuse Isle in which to live with Elaine/Helen/Amite/Helizabel/(Gwallwen)
      8. Under the self-imposed impression that he could never again return to Arthur’s court
        1. Lancelot calls himself “Le Chevalier (Mal Fet”)/(Malfait)/(Wicked Knight)
        2. Guards the island against all challengers
      9. Ector/Hector de Maris and Perceval
        1. Sent by Guinevere
        2. Find Lancelot
        3. Persuade him to return
    10. Lancelot’s Grail Adventures
      1. Met and adventured with his son Galahad in the vessel with Amide’s body
      2. Lancelot suffered unaccustomed defeats and humiliation at arms
      3. He arrived at Carbonek/Corbenic/Corbin
        1. Having resolved to amend his life of his “adulterous” love for Guinevere
        2. He experienced a few visions and semi-visions
          1. Lancelot had a Grail vision of his own
          2. It was not the full experience of Galahad and his companions
          3. He found the door to the chapel where the holy vessel was kept
          4. Lancelot was prevented from entering by an angelic presence
          5. The vision put him into a swoon (trance) for several weeks (nearly a month)
          6. One from which he awakened filled with the ineffable marvels he had seen
      4. It was made clear to him that his quest was at an end
        1. His failure was due to his love for Guinevere
        2. This love exceeded his love for God (highly Chirsitanised interpretation)
  5. Endings
    1. Lancelot’s Betrayal
      1. Lancelot soon relapsed into his old love for Guinevere
        1. More careless about secrecy
        2. The incident of the poisoning of Sir Patrice of Ireland
        3. The passion and death of Elaine of Astolat
      2. Eventually trapped alone with Guinevere by Agravaine and Mordred
        1. Just when she and Lancelot had decided to end their love affair
        2. Lancelot fought his way free
        3. Leaving the Queen behind with reluctance
        4. Guinevere was sentenced, by Arthur, to burn at the stake
      3. Lancelot returned to rescue her from the stake with great slaughter of Arthur’s men
        1. Accidentally killed Agravaine, and Gawain’s brothers, Gaheris and Gareth
        2. This killing of Gareth causes Lancelot’s sword, Aro(u)ndight/Arondite/Alondite, to become cursed
      4. Arthur and Gawain
        1. Had always, until then, been counted among Lancelot’s dearest friends
        2. First besieged Lancelot, his kinsmen, and supporters
        3. Then Guinevere in Joyous/Joieuse G(u)ard(e)
      5. At the Pope’s intervention
        1. Lancelot restored Guinevere to Arthur
        2. Who took her back and pardoned her
        3. But exiled Lancelot
      6. Lancelot returned to his lands in France
        1. Where he parcelled out his territories and titles
        2. Among his kinsmen and followers
      7. Arthur and Gawain pursued Lancelot across the Channel and besieged him in Gannes
      8. Lancelot met Gawain in single combat
        1. With the utmost reluctance
        2. When Lancelot won, he refused to kill Gawain
      9. War between Lancelot and Arthur escalated
        1. Broken off when Arthur had to return to Camelot/Camu-lôt
        2. To deal with Mordred’s rebellion
    2. Deaths of Arthur and Mordred
      1. Gawain
        1. Dying at Dover
        2. Wrote a plea to Lancelot to return and aid Arthur
      2. Thanks to the famous premature battle at Salisbury
        1. Lancelot and his men arrived too late
        2. Mordred and virtually all the men of both armies were dead
        3. Arthur had passed, from a mortal wound (or was taken to Avalon to be healed)
      3. Lancelot was able
        1. To mop up the last of the rebellion
        2. Which was being kept alive by Mordred’s two sons
    3. Deaths of Guinevere and Lancelot
      1. After the war
        1. Lancelot visited Guinevere
          1. One last time
          2. In a nunnery
          3. At Almesbury
        2. He put aside his weapons and armour to become a hermit
          1. Which was how he lived out the rest of his life
          2. Together with another hermit
          3. The Archbishop of Canterbury and a cousin to Lancelot joined them
          4. Also included were many of Lancelot’s kinsmen
        3. For four years he stayed there
      2. Lancelot, the great king of Benwick/Benoic/Benoyc, died “a holy man”
      3. At the same time as he died, the Archbishop had a vision
        1. About Lancelot’s soul
        2. Being brought to the heavens
        3. By angels
      4. Lancelot’s body
        1. Was taken to Joyous/Joieuse G(u)ard(e)
        2. Where he was buried
        3. In a grave beside that of Duke Galeholt/Galeha(u)(l)t/Galahalt/Galahaut/Galohalt/Galahad/Galahaus/Galahos of Sorelois
      5. Sir Ector
        1. The last of the original Knights of the Round Table
        2. Delivered the eulogy
  6. Occurrences of “Lancelot” (by various names and descriptions) in Related “Literature”
    1. The Archivolt/Archivault of the Porta della Pescheria on the Modena Cathedral. AD 1090/1120/1135/1140.
    2. de Troyes, Chrétien. Lancelot, or Le Chevalier de la Charrete (Lancelot, or The Knight of the Cart). late Twelfth Century AD (c AD 1135).
    3. de Troyes, Chrétien. Érec et Énide (Geraint and Enid). late Twelfth Century AD (c AD 1170).
    4. de Troyes, Chrétien. Cligès. late Twelfth Century AD (c AD 1176).
    5. Perlesvaus, or Le/Li Hauz Livre(s) du Graal (The High Book(s)/History of the Grail).
               early Thirteenth Century AD (AD 1192/1205/1220/1225).
    6. von Zatzikhoven, Ulrich. Lanzelet (Lanzalet in French and Spanish; Lancelot in English). early Thirteenth Century AD (c AD 1200).
    7. Lancelot do Lac (Lancelot of the Lake). AD 1215/1220.
    8. Vulgate Lancelot Propre (Lancelot Proper). AD 1210s/1215/1230.
    9. Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal (Quest of the Holy Grail). AD 1210s/1215/1230.
    10. Vulgate Morte Artu (Death of Arthur). AD 1210s/1215/1230.
    11. Post-Vulgate Huth-Merlin (Continuation of Merlin, or The Merlin Continuation). AD 1230/1240.
    12. Post-Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal (Quest of the Holy Grail). AD 1230/1240.
    13. Post-Vulgate Mort Artu (Death of Arthur). AD 1230/1240.
    14. de Gat, Luce and Helie de Boron. Tristan en prose (Prose Tristan). AD 1225-1235, second half of Thirteenth Century AD (AD 1276).
    15. Lantsloot vander Haghedochte (Lancelot of the Cave). c AD 1260.
    16. Jehan. Les Merveilles de Rigomer (The Marvels of Rigomer). mid/late Thirteenth Century AD.
    17. (Roman van) Lanceloet ((Romance of) Lancelot). AD 1322/1323.
    18. Lanceloet en het Hert met de Witte Voet (Lancelot and the Hart/Stag with the White Foot). AD 1322/1323.
    19. La Tavola Ritonda (The Round Table). AD 1325/1350.
    20. Stanzaic Le Morte Arthur (The Death of Arthur). Fourteenth Century AD.
    21. (La) Vendetta (Che fe Messer Lanzelloto de la Morte) di (Miser) Tristano
               ((The) Revenge/Vengeance (taken by Sir Lancelot for the Death) of (Sir) Tristan). Fourteenth Century AD.
    22. Perceforest (Pierce the Forest). AD 1330/1344.
               (The most complete of the four manuscripts known is “Manuscript C”.)
               (It was written by David Aubert, c AD 1459/1460; for Duc Philippe de Bourgogne le Bon.)
    23. Alliterative Morte Arthure (Death of Arthur). c AD 1400 (Fourteenth/Fifteenth Century AD).
    24. (Li) C(h)antari di Lancel(l)otto (The Songs of Lancelot). late Fourteenth/early Fifteenth Century AD.
    25. Le Livre de Lancelot du Lac (The Book of Lancelot of the Lake). c AD 1401/1425.
    26. Füetrer, Ulrich. Prose Lantzilet (Prose Lancelot). c AD 1467, or AD 1471/1472 to AD 1475/1476.
    27. Malory, Syr Thomas. (Le) Morte Darthur (The Death of Arthur, or, as originally titled, The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round Table).
               This ‘Winchester Manuscript’ was published AD 1469/1470/1481/1483.
    28. Lancelot of the Laik (Lancelot of the Lake). late Fifteenth Century AD.
    29. Quando Tristano e Lancielotto al Petrone di Merlino (When Tristan and Lancelot fought at a Stone of Merlin). late Fifteenth Century AD.
    30. Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte d’Arthur (The Death of Arthur). Printed by William Caxton in AD 1485.
    31. Füetrer, Ulrich. Stanzaic Lannzilet (Stanzaic Lancelot). AD 1483/1487.
    32. Sir Lancelot du Lake (Sir Lancelot of the Lake). Sixteenth Century AD.
    33. P(r)ovest′ o Tryshchane, or Povest o Trištanu i Ižoti, or Trysčan (Romance of Tristan, or Romance of Tristan and Isolde, or Tristan). c AD 1580.
  7. Astrological Signs Associated with Lancelot
    1. Leo — Sun+/- — Fire
    2. Virgo — Mercury- — Earth
    3. Scorpio — Mars- — Water
  8. Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline of Lancelot
    1. Geography of Lancelot
    2. Genealogy of Lancelot
    3. Timeline of Lancelot
Afterword by Anthony Adams

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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